3More information on the Atlantic Salmon: It is at risk due to invasive speciesIt is a Cold Water FishAverage Length – 25-70cmAverage Weight – kgDistinguished by: silvery colour, spotted and deformed during the spawning season, small scales, a round dorsal fin, comparatively large size, bodies are long and thin
4Habitat and Development They have a different habitat for each stage in their life cycleThere are two types of Atlantic Salmon – the best-known migrates from its spawning location to the Atlantic Ocean and returns to lay its eggs, other type never travels to the ocean – commonly referred to as ‘landlocked’Oceanic salmon travels down-river to Atlantic Ocean, landlocked travel into an inland lakeBoth become sexually mature after several years in lake/oceanThey undergo several physical changes and force themselves upriver back to their breeding groundFirst few years of life, young salmon remain in the inland water where they were born later, develop into “smolts”, oceanic/landlocked salmon take different pathOceanic salmon have harder time to return to river – results in decrease in salmon population
5Habitat and Development Continued In Canada, the salmon spawn in October/November, dependingon the regionWhen migrating upstream, they mustsurmount obstacles (natural and man-made) toreach the spawning grounds“Spawning site is usually a gravel-bottom riffle area above or below a pool”Female will dig a nest with her caudal fin, and when she is finished spawning, she will cover the eggs with gravelThe eggs hatch in about 110 days, young emerge from gravel in May/June young remain in the river/stream until they are about 65mm longAge which they leave for the ocean varies depending on region, 2-3 years in the Martime, 4-8 years in the Ungava region
6Salmon OvaSpawning season for salmon generally start midway through August and ends in November (approximately 3 months long)Female salmon digs a type of nest with her fins and deposits the eggs into it so she may cover the eggs with gravelSalmon eggs hatch within 110 daysSalmon eggs hatch only if the water temperature is warm enough which is usually sometime in early spring
7Spawning Female Salmon Atlantic salmon return to the river that they were spawned in even after leaving to the ocean when it is not spawning seasonFemale salmon may carry and deposit eggs/lb of body weightAtlantic Salmon eggs are usually pale orange and have a diameter of 5-7 mm
8Spawning Male SalmonDuring spawning season, male salmon darken to low brown tones to redThis is to appeal to female salmon
9Importance of Nesting Grounds Because salmon are frequently moving to their original spawning area, if it is changed even in the slightest because of pollution or construction, this could result in the decrease of the salmon populationEven the lowering of water levels may effect salmon numbersThis decreases movement and the number of salmon able to pass through the rivers at once as well as leaving salmon eggs to become vulnerable
10Atlantic Salmon Feeding They feed on crustaceans and fishes such as smelt, herring, and small mackerel and codYoung salmon in streams feed mainly on aquatic insect larvaeDistribution of the Atlantic SalmonNative species to the North Atlantic OceanIn Canada, they are found throughout Newfoundland, Labrador, the Maritime Provinces, eastern Quebec, and the Ungava region of Northern QuebecIntroduced in the Pacific southwest and the Pacific southeast number of landlocked populations throughout the distributionThey are now at risk because of competition from other fish, due to overlapping niches
11What is a Niche?In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of or population in its ecosystem to each other. In this case, the niches of the salmon and the invading bass are overlapping
12An organism’s niche is unique to its environment An organism’s niche is unique to its environment. However, when an invasive species enters the environment, this poses a huge threat to the pre-existing organisms.This causes an increase in competition for survival thus one species will have to dominate over the other.As a result, the equilibrium in the ecosystem will be imbalanced therefore jeopardizing survival rates for all other organisms.
13Different Niches a Fish can Occupy Water Temperature (°C)Water Salinity (ppt)VegetationDistributionHabitat SpecificsWater temperature test - Bay of Fundy
14Temperature/Salinity Atlantic Salmon – When at its adult stage, the Atlantic Salmon has a temperature tolerance range from 8°C - 23°CSmallmouth Bass - 4°C °CSalinity of Water:Atlantic Salmon – Tolerance at 35.5 pptSmallmouth Bass – Tolerance at 24.4 ppt
15Vegetation Types of Vegetation Atlantic salmon - Feed on a variety of organisms including crustaceans and fishes, such as smelt, herring and small mackerel and cod. Smallmouth bass – Feed is mainly composed of insects, crayfish and fishes.
16Distribution Distribution: The Atlantic salmon is native to the basin of the North Atlantic Ocean. In Canada, the Atlantic salmon occurs naturally throughout Newfoundland, Labrador, the Maritime Provinces, eastern Quebec and the Ungava region of northern Quebec.The Smallmouth Bass can be found in southern Nova Scotia, southern and western New Brunswick, southern Quebec. Map of the Maritimes (Canada)
17Habitat SpecificsThe Atlantic salmon is a cold-water species and like most migratory fishes, it has a different habitat for each stage of its life history. Marine Atlantic salmon return from the sea to freshwater streams to spawn.The Smallmouth bass is a warm-water fish species, usually found in rocky and sandy areas of lakes and rivers in moderately shallow water and near rocks of shoals or submerged logs. Because the bass is an invasive species whose niche overlaps with the salmon’s, competition has ensued
19Other Problems Caused by these species include: Invasive species:Species of animals that are released into an environment where they do not normally belong. It disrupts the natural balance of it’s ecosystem and result in the elimination of populations in the area and or their food source.Other Problems Caused by these species include:The spread of diseaseAn increase in the number of parasitesThey create competition for food sourcesThey occupy space and other resources, disrupting existing habitats
20Invasive Species to Atlantic Salmon Include: Rainbow TroutDidymosphenia geminata (type of Algae)Small Mouth Bass, Large Mouth Bass, PikeRainbow TroutThe most concerning of the invasive species affecting Atlantic Salmon in New Brunswick’s Miramichi Lake, however, is the smallmouth bass.
22More information on the Smallmouth Bass: It is a warm water fish speciesLives in lakes and rivers (shallow)Eats insects, crayfish and fishesSpawns from late May to early JulyMales build nests in shallow sandy, rocky areaMale fecundity' is the term for number of eggs in a nest
23History of the Species: “They have been moved all over the United States since 1825, when construction of the Erie Canal extended their range into central New York state. ”“Studies of introduced smallmouth bass have already shown that they have devastated trout populations on the East Coast. Tahoe's lake, brown and rainbow trout could also be in jeopardy. The alien fish could hamper efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to re-introduce native Lahontan trout to the Sierra lake.”Invasive qualities of the Species:Smallmouth bass are highly aggressiveThey endanger water clarity by “excreting nutrients that cause algae blooms” An example of where this occurs is Lake TahoeWater clarity is often measured by planting a white disk in the lake at a certain depth and seeing how long it is visible for
24What caused the species to invade? The bass were likely introduced to Miramichi Lake located in New Brunswick: a prime trout and Atlantic salmon habitatIt connects to the outlet of Lake Brook, 5km long and flows into the Main Southwest Miramichi River.Miramichi River extends for 20km
25Why is this a problem? Miramichi Lake Small Mouth Bass are known to be prized fish for their aggressive behaviour.The fishing industry around Miramichi Lake is centred mainly around trout and salmonThe changes in food chains caused by a decline in Atlantic Salmon would affect not only the lake, but all of the rivers it feeds, and even the oceans, as adult salmon migrate there. This would become an international problem
26Then why did it happen?It is unknown how Small Mouth Bass was introduced into the lake but it is believed someone moved the species from one body of water to another.This is illegal in the Province of New Brunswick and can result in a fine of $However, fishermen have been known to undertake in the activity for sportive fishing purposes and to catch fish not readily available in the area.
28Invasive species are plants, animals, aquatic life and micro-organisms that outcompete native species when introduced outside of their natural environment and threaten Canada’s ecosystems, economy and society.Invasivespecies.gc.ca
29Invasive species generally share common characteristics which makes them difficult to control. Higher rate of reproductionFewer natural predatorsAbility to thrive in different environments
30Introducing and Spreading Invasive Species Invasive species are a cost of globalization. They are introduced and spread through various ways:Goods such as firewood, plant products or wood packaging.Live food importsAquarium and Horticultural importsVehicles such as aircraft, commercial and recreational boats.Ballast water from large shipsDiseases in wildlife, which spread rapidly over wide areas
32Federal Law Fisheries Act Canada Wildlife Act Forestry ActCanadian National Parks ActDepartment of Natural Resources ActFisheries ActCanada Shipping ActCanadian Environmental Assessment ActCanadian Environmental Protection ActThe Canadian government has taken and continues to take active measures to prevent the spread of invasive species. There are a number of acts in favor of these measures:Oceans ActPest Control Products ActRegulation of International and Interprovincial Act
33An Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Canada aims to reduce the risk of invasive species to the environment, economy and society, and to promote environmental values such as biodiversity and sustainability.
34GoalsTo prevent the harmful intentional and unintentional introduction of invasive species to CanadaTo detect and identify new invaders;To respond rapidly to new invaders upon detection; andTo manage established and spreading invaders through eradication containment and controlThe Canadian government sustains a clear set of goals to outline present actions as well as future acts.
35Our Responsibility (General) Many invasive species are not easily visible to the naked eye. Leave natural items- like animals, plants, seeds, insects, wood products, soil and water in their natural habitats to avoid the introduction and spread the invasive species.Often simple actions do not seem to have large affects but when it is regarding the environment- especially the water system can have a damaging effect. The connection of global water systems results in any alien species entering native environments.
36Our Responsibility (General) Plants, animals and aquatic life bought on the internet or in a store can impact Canada’s ecosystem if they accidentally escape or if you can no longer care for them. With no natural predators they could overwhelm the ecosystem in which they are released.Learn about invasive species and ballast water and the Canadian Ballast water program- educate yourself and community.
37Do not release fish into drainage system from which it did not originate. Do not transport water from one system to another, as it may contain unseen parasites or larvae that could have damaging effects in new waters.
38Take preventative measures to prevent climate change Take preventative measures to prevent climate change. Climate charge will have dramatic impacts on native coldwater fishes.Protect lakes (especially smaller lakes) because they are more likely to contain more stressful abiotic conditions such as increased water temperatures and lower oxygen levels.Climate change has dramatic impacts on water temperatures that effect the migratory routes as well increase the number of habitable areas for small mouth bass.
39Two Methods on Dealing With Invasive Species: Actively (after the problem)OrProactively (before the problem)
40Actively:“As there is only one exit waterway from Miramichi Lake, a barrier was erected to monitor all fish going in and out of the lake and selectively remove any small-mouth bass.”– Nelson PoirierElectrofishing (the process of electrifying water to stun the fishes, then touring the area to remove smallmouth bass)Both are intended as non-lethal methods
41Actively Continued:A more extreme method – as used in some Ontario lakes and BC lakes – is to apply a chemical called rotenone to the lake, killing all species. Then only native species are reintroduced
42Proactively: Don’t buy invasive species as pets Dealing with Invasive Species ProactivelyDon’t buy invasive species as petsFollow the governments fishing laws
43In Conclusion:Regardless of how cut off we seem from invasive species, they do affect us via industry and laws put in place to manage themIt is our responsibility to do what we can to stop the spread of invasive species and protect those that are vulnerable
44BibliographyAnimal Facts about Salmon (2011). Retrieved fromAsf's river notes offers latest salmon run information. (2000). Retrieved fromAtlantic Salmon (2011). Retrieved fromAtlantic salmon. (2010, July 9). Retrieved from saumonatlantique-eng.htmAtlantic salmon - salmo salar. (2003, January 22). Retrieved fromAtlantic salmon fishing on the miramichi river . (2008). Retrieved fromBeautiful rainbow trout fish picture . (2011). Retrieved fromCoates, Peter A.. American perceptions of immigrant and invasive species: strangers on the land. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.Fishing atlantic salmon. (2011). Retrieved fromIssues - invasive species. (2011). Retrieved fromLake tahoe: smallmouth bass threatens native fish. (2011). Retrieved from bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/08/16/BASK1KNS4A.DTL"Mathews/van Holde/Ahern 3rd Edition." Pearson | Higher Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Aug <http://www.pearsonhighered.comMooney, Harold A., and Richard J. Hobbs. Invasive species in a changing world: a project of SCOPE, the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000.New brunswick lodges and resorts vacations. (2000). Retrieved from
45Bibliography Continued Ontario – Great Lakes Area Fact Sheets (Atlantic Salmon) (2010, July 9). Retrieved from feuilletsinfos-ogla-rglo/atlanticsalmon-saumonatlantique-eng.htmSandlund, O. T., Peter Johan Schei, and Åslaug Viken. Invasive species and biodiversity management . Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic,Salmon at Griffin Lake Lodge (2011). Retrieved fromSalmon Facts (2011). Retrieved fromSmallmouth bass. (2009). Retrieved from rglo/smallmouthbass-achiganpetitebouche-eng.htmSmallmouth Bass in the Miramichi (2010). Retrieved from miramichi&catid=36:threats&Itemid=29Smallmouth bass jeopardize miramichi system. (2008, October 15). Retrieved from"Small Mouth Bass Threaten NB's Atlantic Salmon." nbaquaticinvasives. N.p., 28 Mar Web. 30 Aug <nbaquaticinvasives.ca/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=102:smallmouth-bass-threaten-nbs-atlantic- salmon&catid=53:news&ItemidSocial fish. (2008). Retrieved fromThreats to Salmon (2010). Retrieved from"TWRA - East Tennessee - Reservoir Fisheries Electrofishing Surveys." TWRA - East Tennessee Reservoir Fish Management - TNFISH.ORG. Reservoir Fisheries Management Program, n.d. Web. 30 Aug <http://www.tnfish.org/ElectrofishingShockingSurveys