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CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: COLD WAR CONFLICTS

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1 CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: COLD WAR CONFLICTS
The Smurfs: Communist?

2 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR: SECTION ONE
FORMER ALLIES CLASH Controlling the economy: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union* Controlling the govt.: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union* U.S. angry that Stalin supported Germany for some time Stalin angry over Allies not opening a Western front and the secret of the atomic bomb

3 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR

4 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR United Nations*
U.S. and Soviet Union use this to spread influence to others Stalin does not keep his promises at Yalta—no free elections or democracies Big Three meet again at Potsdam—discuss war reparations from Germany* U.S., during war, is an economic leader—want to grow by extending trade with Eastern Europe (we want democracies)

5 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR Soviets also emerged as an economic and military powerhouse from the war Yet, they suffered heavy casualties from the war To prevent further invasions from the West, they felt they had claim to Eastern Europe Satellite nations* Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland

6 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR

7 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR Containment*
Europe is, now, divided by the iron curtain* pg. 605 in textbook COLD WAR IN EUROPE Cold War* Turkey and Greece cannot be supported financially by Britain Truman and U.S. fear Soviet influence—create Truman Doctrine*

8 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR Most of Western Europe dealing with problems of destruction by the war, refugees wandering, and a terrible winter ruining crops Marshall Plan* SUPERPOWERS STRUGGLE OVER GERMANY End of WWII, Germany divided into four zones: U.S., France, Great Britain, and Soviet Union City of Berlin also divided with West vs. East

9 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR G.B., Fr., and U.S. unify W. Germany; on their way to unify Berlin Stalin uses this as an opportunity to close all highways and railroads leading into city Berlin Airlift* Soviets give up just after a year

10 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR

11 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR As a result of the Soviet blockade, Western Europe begins to fear the decisions of the Soviets United States, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Greece, Turkey, West Germany, and Portugal form NATO*

12 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP: SECTION TWO
CHINA BECOMES A COMMUNIST COUNTRY Chiang Kai-shek* Ruler of Southern and Eastern China; had a corrupt govt. Collected a grain tax during a famine Was a 10,000 percent increase; people protested and his secret police opened fire on them

13 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP Mao Zedong* Leader of Northern China
Win peasant support with helping them to read, fight against famine, and promising land reform Communist Red Army grows

14 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP With the defeat of Japan at the end of WWII, civil war breaks out between the two groups 44-47 U.S. fails to negotiate peace Truman does not send troops to the Nationalists gives them two billion in supplies and equipment Not enough to help for two reasons* Kai-Shek flees to Taiwan* and rest of China becomes Communist

15 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP Conservative Democrats and Republicans attack Truman for this loss Believed we put more effort into Europe rather than Asia THE KOREAN WAR 38th Parallel* South: Republic of Korea, capital is Seoul; Syngman Rhee is leader North: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; capital is Pyongyang; Kim Il Sung is leader

16 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP Korean War* United Nations joins with S. Korea
Truman orders troops stationed in Japan to support the South; stations a fleet between Taiwan and China

17 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP THE UNITED STATES FIGHTS IN KOREA
N. Korea captures Seoul; it drives S. Korean troops and U.N. into Pusan General Douglas MacArthur launches a counterattack with heavy artillery, fresh troops, and tanks at Inchon Other troops move into Pusan—traps N. Korean forces between two groups Reach as far as the Yalu River—China on the other side

18 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP Now, China joins with N. Korea for two reasons*
Drive the U.N. and MacArthur into S. Korea; opposing forces take Seoul For two years, neither side makes an advance MacArthur calls for nuclear weapons against China; Truman refuses*

19 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP MacArthur still pushes full war against China
He speaks and writes privately to newspapers and magazines about his views; criticizes Truman Truman fires MacArthur* Soviet Union suggests a cease-fire in 51 Takes two years to settle; 38th Parallel does not move and war ends in stalemate End results for Americans*

20 THE COLD WAR AT HOME: SECTION THREE
Anti-Communist Propaganda FEAR OF COMMUNIST INFLUENCE Americans fear the takeover of Eastern European countries and China; plus, there was a communist party in the U.S. Federal Employee Loyalty Program* 3.2 million investigated; 212 dismissed; 2,900 resigned

21 THE COLD WAR AT HOME House of Un-American Activities Committee*
Believed films were trying to sneak in Communist propaganda 43 “friendly” witnesses support the presence of communism Hollywood Ten* Blacklist*

22 THE COLD WAR AT HOME SPY CASES STUN THE NATION Alger Hiss*
Chambers produces microfilm of govt. docs. typed by Hiss Hiss is convicted of perjury and sentenced to jail

23 THE COLD WAR AT HOME Sept. 3, 1949Soviets test atomic bomb
Was not supposed to happen until three to five years later U.S. believed secrets have been leaked Klaus Fuchs admitted to giving away info. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg*

24 THE COLD WAR AT HOME MCCARTHY LAUNCHES HIS WITCH-HUNT
Senator Joseph McCarthy* McCarthyism* Claimed he had varying numbers of names of people in the Senate; accuses Democrats of “20 years of treason”

25 THE COLD WAR AT HOME Republicans did not speak out against him; they thought this would help them win the next pres. election McCarthy made accusations against U.S. Army; became a nationally televised court proceeding He loses support from people due to bullying witnesses; Senate criticizes him for improper conduct Dies three years later from alchoholism

26 TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE: SECTION FOUR
Living on the Edge BRINKSMANSHIP RULES U.S. POLICY Soviet Union and the United States participate in an arms race H-bomb* Soviets build it first in 53 Dwight Eisenhower* John Foster Dulles and brinksmanship*

27 TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE
THE COLD WAR SPREADS AROUND THE WORLD Eisenhower forms the Central Intelligence Agency due to arms race* Prime minister of Iran takes over oil fields in his country that belong to Britain Britain stops buying Iranian oil; causes Iranian economy to falter Feared the prime minister might ask Soviets for help

28 TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE
Gave several million dollars to people against the prime minister Wanted pro-American Shah of Iran to return to power; he came back and gave oil fields to Western companies CIA also looked at Guatemala--mad because their govt. gave away 200,000 acres of American land to peasants Our response*

29 TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE
West Germany now allowed to rearm and join NATO, out of fear, the Soviet Union forms the Warsaw Pact* pg. 624 1955 Britain and U.S. agree to finance construction of a dam on the Nile River Gamal Abdel-Nassar, Egypt’s head of govt. plays the U.S. and Soviets against each other* U.S. finds out and withdraws a loan given to Egypt

30 TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE
Egypt takes over British and French controlled end of Suez Canal; refused to allow ships bound for Israel pass through Three countries send out troops to gain Mediterranean end; UN stops fighting and forces them to withdraw Egypt keeps control of the canal During this time, Soviets support Egypt, so the Eisenhower Doctrine is formed*

31 TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE
THE COLD WAR TAKES TO THE SKIES Stalin dies in 53; replaced by Nikita Khruschev* They launch Sputnik—causes U.S. to catch up CIA begins making secret flights over the Soviet Union

32 TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE
Americans are afraid of these flights for two reasons* Eisenhower was afraid but was persuaded to do one more flight Francis Gary Powers’ plane is shot down Eisenhower’s reaction*


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