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FORMER ALLIES CLASH  Controlling the economy: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union*  Controlling the govt.: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union*  U.S. angry that.

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Presentation on theme: "FORMER ALLIES CLASH  Controlling the economy: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union*  Controlling the govt.: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union*  U.S. angry that."— Presentation transcript:

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2 FORMER ALLIES CLASH  Controlling the economy: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union*  Controlling the govt.: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union*  U.S. angry that Stalin supported Germany for some time  Stalin angry over Allies not opening a Western front and the secret of the atomic bomb

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4  United Nations*  U.S. and Soviet Union use this to spread influence to others  Stalin does not keep his promises at Yalta—no free elections or democracies  Big Three meet again at Potsdam— discuss war reparations from Germany*  U.S., during war, is an economic leader— want to grow by extending trade with Eastern Europe (we want democracies)

5  Soviets also emerged as an economic and military powerhouse from the war  Yet, they suffered heavy casualties from the war  To prevent further invasions from the West, they felt they had claim to Eastern Europe  Satellite nations*  Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland

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7  Containment*  Europe is, now, divided by the iron curtain* pg. 605 in textbook COLD WAR IN EUROPE  Cold War*  Turkey and Greece cannot be supported financially by Britain  Truman and U.S. fear Soviet influence— create Truman Doctrine*

8  Most of Western Europe dealing with problems of destruction by the war, refugees wandering, and a terrible winter ruining crops  Marshall Plan* SUPERPOWERS STRUGGLE OVER GERMANY  End of WWII, Germany divided into four zones: U.S., France, Great Britain, and Soviet Union  City of Berlin also divided with West vs. East

9  G.B., Fr., and U.S. unify W. Germany; on their way to unify Berlin  Stalin uses this as an opportunity to close all highways and railroads leading into city  Berlin Airlift*  Soviets give up just after a year

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11  As a result of the Soviet blockade, Western Europe begins to fear the decisions of the Soviets  United States, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Greece, Turkey, West Germany, and Portugal form NATO*

12 CHINA BECOMES A COMMUNIST COUNTRY  Chiang Kai-shek*  Ruler of Southern and Eastern China; had a corrupt govt.  Collected a grain tax during a famine  Was a 10,000 percent increase; people protested and his secret police opened fire on them

13  Mao Zedong*  Leader of Northern China  Win peasant support with helping them to read, fight against famine, and promising land reform  Communist Red Army grows

14  With the defeat of Japan at the end of WWII, civil war breaks out between the two groups  U.S. fails to negotiate peace  Truman does not send troops to the Nationalists gives them two billion in supplies and equipment  Not enough to help for two reasons*  Kai-Shek flees to Taiwan* and rest of China becomes Communist

15  Conservative Democrats and Republicans attack Truman for this loss  Believed we put more effort into Europe rather than Asia THE KOREAN WAR  38 th Parallel*  South: Republic of Korea, capital is Seoul; Syngman Rhee is leader  North: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; capital is Pyongyang; Kim Il Sung is leader

16  Korean War*  United Nations joins with S. Korea  Truman orders troops stationed in Japan to support the South; stations a fleet between Taiwan and China

17 THE UNITED STATES FIGHTS IN KOREA  N. Korea captures Seoul; it drives S. Korean troops and U.N. into Pusan  General Douglas MacArthur launches a counterattack with heavy artillery, fresh troops, and tanks at Inchon  Other troops move into Pusan—traps N. Korean forces between two groups  Reach as far as the Yalu River—China on the other side

18  Now, China joins with N. Korea for two reasons*  Drive the U.N. and MacArthur into S. Korea; opposing forces take Seoul  For two years, neither side makes an advance  MacArthur calls for nuclear weapons against China; Truman refuses*

19  MacArthur still pushes full war against China  He speaks and writes privately to newspapers and magazines about his views; criticizes Truman  Truman fires MacArthur*  Soviet Union suggests a cease-fire in 51  Takes two years to settle; 38 th Parallel does not move and war ends in stalemate  End results for Americans* End results for Americans

20 Anti-Communist Propaganda FEAR OF COMMUNIST INFLUENCE  Americans fear the takeover of Eastern European countries and China; plus, there was a communist party in the U.S.  Federal Employee Loyalty Program*  3.2 million investigated; 212 dismissed; 2,900 resigned

21  House of Un-American Activities Committee*  Believed films were trying to sneak in Communist propaganda  43 “friendly” witnesses support the presence of communism  Hollywood Ten*  Blacklist*

22 SPY CASES STUN THE NATION  Alger Hiss*  Chambers produces microfilm of govt. docs. typed by Hiss  Hiss is convicted of perjury and sentenced to jail

23  Sept. 3, 1949  Soviets test atomic bomb  Was not supposed to happen until three to five years later  U.S. believed secrets have been leaked  Klaus Fuchs admitted to giving away info.  Ethel and Julius Rosenberg*

24 MCCARTHY LAUNCHES HIS WITCH-HUNT  Senator Joseph McCarthy*  McCarthyism*  Claimed he had varying numbers of names of people in the Senate; accuses Democrats of “20 years of treason”

25  Republicans did not speak out against him; they thought this would help them win the next pres. election  McCarthy made accusations against U.S. Army; became a nationally televised court proceeding  He loses support from people due to bullying witnesses; Senate criticizes him for improper conduct  Dies three years later from alchoholism

26 Living on the Edge BRINKSMANSHIP RULES U.S. POLICY  Soviet Union and the United States participate in an arms race  H-bomb*  Soviets build it first in 53  Dwight Eisenhower*  John Foster Dulles and brinksmanship*

27 THE COLD WAR SPREADS AROUND THE WORLD  Eisenhower forms the Central Intelligence Agency due to arms race*  Prime minister of Iran takes over oil fields in his country that belong to Britain  Britain stops buying Iranian oil; causes Iranian economy to falter  Feared the prime minister might ask Soviets for help

28  Gave several million dollars to people against the prime minister  Wanted pro-American Shah of Iran to return to power; he came back and gave oil fields to Western companies  CIA also looked at Guatemala--mad because their govt. gave away 200,000 acres of American land to peasants  Our response*

29  West Germany now allowed to rearm and join NATO, out of fear, the Soviet Union forms the Warsaw Pact* pg. 624  1955 Britain and U.S. agree to finance construction of a dam on the Nile River  Gamal Abdel-Nassar, Egypt’s head of govt. plays the U.S. and Soviets against each other*  U.S. finds out and withdraws a loan given to Egypt

30  Egypt takes over British and French controlled end of Suez Canal; refused to allow ships bound for Israel pass through  Three countries send out troops to gain Mediterranean end; UN stops fighting and forces them to withdraw  Egypt keeps control of the canal  During this time, Soviets support Egypt, so the Eisenhower Doctrine is formed*

31 THE COLD WAR TAKES TO THE SKIES  Stalin dies in 53; replaced by Nikita Khruschev*  They launch Sputnik—causes U.S. to catch up  CIA begins making secret flights over the Soviet Union

32  Americans are afraid of these flights for two reasons*  Eisenhower was afraid but was persuaded to do one more flight  Francis Gary Powers’ plane is shot down  Eisenhower’s reaction*


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