Presentation on theme: "American Revolution Outcome 2 (1776-1789) HTAV Student Lectures – 26 March 2012 Nick Frigo – Santa Maria College 1."— Presentation transcript:
American Revolution Outcome 2 (1776-1789) HTAV Student Lectures – 26 March 2012 Nick Frigo – Santa Maria College 1
Outcome 2 - On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse the challenges facing the emerging new order, and the way in which attempts were made to create a new society, and evaluate the nature of the society created by the revolution. 2
Key knowledge the contribution of individuals and groups to the creation of the new society; for example, in America, Benjamin Franklin, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson and George Washington the cause of difficulties or crises faced by the revolutionary groups or governments as a new state was consolidated; for example, the War of Independence in America the response of the key revolutionary individuals, groups, governments or parties to the difficulties that they encountered as the new state was consolidated; the Constitutional Convention in May 1789 in America; the compromise of revolutionary ideals; the changes and continuities that the revolution brought about in the structure of government, the organisation of society, and its values, and the distribution of wealth and conditions of everyday life. 3
Thomas Paine – Common Sense Common Sense appeared in early 1776 ad became the most popular pamphlet in the American colonies. “It made the first bold argument for independence... ‘Society in every state is a blessing, but Government even in its best state is but a necessary evil...’.” – Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the Us.
Differing views of Paine Paine’s Common Sense appealed to a wide range of colonial opinion angered by England. Colonials such as John Adams “who were with the patriot cause but wanted to make sure that it didn’t go too far in the direction of democracy... Adams denounced Paine’s plan as ‘so democratical, without any restraint... That it must produce confusion and every evil work’.” - Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the US.
Common Sense Paine dealt with practical advantages of sticking to England: ‘I challenge the warmest advocate for reconciliation t show a single advantage that this continent can reap by being connected with Great Britain. I repeat the challenge; not a single advantage is derived.”
Common Sense As for the bad effects of connection to England, Paine said: “...the injuries and disadvantages which we sustain by that connection are without number... Any submission to, or dependence on, Great Britain, tends directly to involve this Continent in European wars and quarrels, and set us at variance with nations who would otherwise seek our friendship.”
Common Sense The emotional claim Paine was to make by the end of Common Sense was: “Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation. The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries, ‘TIS TIME TO PART.” Common Sense went through 25 editions in 1776. According to Zinn, pamphleteering “had become by this time the chief theatre of debate about relations with England. From 1750 to 1776 four hundred pamphlets had appeared...” – Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the US.
The need for War As early as November 1774, George III has told Lord North that: o “Blows must decide whether they are to be subject to the Country or Independent”. (Wood, p. 51) 11
THREE of the significant victories for the Continental Army January 3, 1777 – Washington as his troops defeat the British at Princeton and drive them back toward New Brunswick. Washington then establishes winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. August 16, 1777 - In the Battle of Bennington, militiamen from Vermont, aided by Massachusetts troops, wipe out a detachment of 800 German Hessians sent by Gen. Burgoyne to seize horses. October 1777 - Saratoga results in the first major American victory of the Revolutionary War (150 Americans, 600 British) 12
THREE of the significant defeats for the Continental Army July 6, 1777 - Gen. Burgoyne's troops stun the Americans with the capture of Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain... a tremendous blow to American morale. September 9-11, 1777 - In the Battle of Brandywine Creek, Gen. Washington and Army of 10,500 men are driven back toward Philadelphia. Sept. 3 - Oct. 28 1779 - Americans suffer a major defeat while attacking the British at Savannah, Georgia. Among the 800 American casualties, British lose 140 13
British actions throughout the revolutionary war; The strategy initially employed by British commanders was to land their forces in America seize control of major cities, destroy the continental army, capture congress, arrest dissidents and restore loyalists to colonial government. – factual from Thompson Attempt to seize a cache of arms reported to be at Concord The British government mounted the largest transoceanic expedition ever sent out from the British isles to intimidate the Americans General William Howe defeats George Washington at the Battle of Long Island Thompson: When these objectives became impossible British generals had to focus instead on occupation, suppression and pursuit George III, August 23 rd 1775 – declared the American Colonies “must either submit or triumph” 14
Leaders; Thomas Gage; 1721 – 2 April 1787 General Gage was the commander in chief of the British Army in America, appointed governor of Massachusetts as part of the Coercive acts. Under the guidance of Lord North to crush the leaders of the rebel army, Gage ordered for the arrests of Samuel Adams and John Hancock It was his order to seize the colonists’ weapons depot at Concord that brought about the Battle of Lexington and Concord “Blame has been widely distributed: Gage for failing to adopt and adequate defensive posture around Boston and for his tactics at Bunker Hill” – Secondary Source Lord North: “ Gage…[is] honest and determined” Port Act 1774 Charles Cornwallis; 1738-1805 An English general who served as a member of Parliament and opposed the imposition of duties that proved highly controversial in the colonies Sympathetic towards the American colonies and voted against the Stamp and Intolerable Acts, however, his sympathy did not extend to support for independence and he joined British forces in American In 1760, Cornwallis was elected to the House of Commons forces in American in August 1776 Served with William Howe on Long Island 1776, then assisted in the pursuit of George Washington across New Jersey He moved to strike a blow into Virginia (1780), believing a major victory “may give us America” visual; The Surrender of Earl Cornwallis 15
Political difficulties of creating a new society End of the revolutionary war 1783 National government still functioning under Articles of Confederation Seeing their country as still very fragile a group of ‘Nationalists’ (Washington, Alexander Hamilton et al) called themselves the FEDERALISTS A Convention in Philadelphia was called in 1787 – this conference adopted a much stronger federal government. There was much debate about the terms of this, but in 1788 the Constitution was ratified. Washington became President in March 1789 18
Economic difficulties of creating a new society Following the revolutionary war, the National government had no money to pay war debts to: o European nations o The private Banks o Americans who had been given promissory notes. There were 3 sorts of debt after the revolutionary war: Owed to foreigners ($12 million) Owed to State Governments ($40 million) Owed to individuals, businesses ($25 million) 19