2The Truman and Eisenhower administrations led the nation to make social, economic, and political adjustments following WWII.Postwar America
3Readjustment and Recover 1944: GI Bill of Rights – paid for GIs to get education, guaranteed a year of unemployment $ while job huntingSuburbs developed in response to housing shortagesDivorce rates on the rise
4The Baby BoomAs soldiers returned, there was an unprecedented population explosionAdvances of medicine increased #s of vaccinationsEducation field boomedNumber of working mothers steadily increased
5Readjustment and Recovery After war, gov’t cancelled $35 billion in war contractsMarch 1946: 3 million unemployedWhen war regulations ended, prices skyrocketed, workers earned lessHowever – Americans had been saving$135 billion in savingsWanted consumer goods!Cold War fears kept up defense spending
6Consumerism Abounds Material goods = success Planned obsolescence – manufacturers intended that products would wear out after a certain periodpeople would have to buy moreBuy now, pay later returnedAdvertising became key
7Mass Media on the Rise Television booms! 1948: 9%1954: 55%1960: 90%Radio switches to news and musicRock ‘n roll appealed to blacks and whitesJazz paved way for minority representation in entertainment
8The Other America1950s: white flight of many middle-class Whites to suburbia took economic resourcesRural poor moving into inner cities, compounding the problemSolution: urban renewalTear down rundown neighborhoods, replace with low-income housing1962: 1 in 4 Americans living in poverty
9The Other AmericaHundreds of thousands of Mexicans came into U.S. as hired handsWilling work work for less $Increased racial tensionsNative Americans continued to face problems1953: Termination policy discontinued federal economic supports to tribesWas absolutely devastating1963: Termination policy abandoned
10Development of the Cold War The Cold War, lasting from 1945 to 1991, was a war of perception. Neither side fully understood the intentions and ambitions of the other. This led to mistrust and military build-ups.
11The Soviet Union Felt they had won World War II had sacrificed the most, deserved the “spoils of war”Create greater security for itselfFeared a strong GermanyEstablish defensible bordersEncourage friendly governments on its bordersSpread communism around the world
12The United States Soviet expansion would spread throughout the world Soviet Union was a threat to U.S. way of lifeespecially after the Soviet Union gained control of Eastern Europe.
14Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech.” “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.”Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech.”Speech analysis
15Iron Curtain = Line between the “free” West and the Soviet controlled East
16A Policy of Containment Definition: Keep communism and the Soviet power inside the USSR. Do not let it spread!Apply diplomatic, economic, and military pressureA way to stop Soviet expansion without having to go to war.
17The Truman Doctrine (1947)The first time the U.S. has to enforce containmentCommunists were gaining influence and power in Turkey and Greece – U.S. did not want them to become part of the USSR!Sent $400 million worth of war supplies to Greece and helped push out CommunismTruman Doctrine marked new level of commitment to Cold War
18The Truman Doctrine will be “the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”
20The Marshall PlanWar damage and debt in Europe invited Communist influenceMarshall Plan created to give economic aid to all European countries$13 billion given to western Europe (was offered to the Soviets but they refused the help!)Proved crucial to Western Europe’s economic recoverySpeech analysis?Video Clip!
24The Russian sector was significant because it contained Berlin. Germany divided into four occupied zones controlled by the British, Russian, Americans, and FrenchOpen border between the Soviet area and the other three sections allowed many to flee to Allied controlled areas
25Even though Berlin was in the Soviet Sector of divided Germany, it was also divided into four parts It would go on to represent the two major sides of the Cold War throughout its duration
26British, Americans, and French create a common currency Russians threaten to blockade Berlin
28June 24th, 1948 - the Blockade Starts France merges with British and American zonesSoviets cut off all shipments from West Germany to BerlinMay 1948: food can no longer be sent into Berlin; electricity cut offThe Berlin Blockade will become a tangible symbol of the Iron CurtainNotice the destruction from WWII
29The Berlin Airlift!U.S. and allies began a massive airlift of supplies that lasted almost a year (7,000 tons a day)May 1949: after 321 days, Stalin lifted the blockadeCouldn’t prevent the creation of West GermanyMakes East Germany communistLasted 320 Days13,000 tons of fuel, food, and other items dropped into BerlinAbout 200,000 flights were madeMay 12, Blockade finally ends
30North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1949: U.S. and 11 other nations sign collective security agreementIf one were attacked, others would come to their defenseCoordinated defensive/military strategiesCombated communism on a national level1955: West Germany joined NATO; USSR countered by creating its own alliance system in eastern Europe– the Warsaw PactToday there are 26 member nations in NATOYear of Decision Packet
31NATO versus the Warsaw Pact Review worksheet: The Cold War Begins?NATO versus the Warsaw Pact
32China Becomes Communist Communists and nationalists fighting over control of ChinaU.S. supported nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek: Sent $3 billion in aidWas not an effective leader, but he wasn’t communistMao Zedong, communist leader, gaining popularityWorked to win support of peasantsHow China became communist packet?
33China Becomes Communist After defeated Japanese were forced to retreat, civil war breaks outTruman refused to send U.S. troopsSent $2 billion in military equipment and suppliesMay 1949: Chiang fled to TaiwanMao established “People’s Republic of China”U.S. refused to recognize as legitimate gov’tDean Acheson speech analysis
34The Korean War (1950-1953) Before WWII, Korea controlled by Japan After WWII, Korea divided along 38th parallelNorth surrendered to Soviets, put in Communist gov’tSouth surrendered to U.S.
35Build Up to WarAfter WWII, U.S. cut back on armed forces in South KoreaJune 1949: only 500 American troopsSoviets felt U.S. would not fight to defend South KoreaBegan arming North Korea with tanks, airplanes, and $$
36Breakout of War June 25, 1950: North Koreans cross 38th parallel South Koreans asked UN for helpWhen issue came before Security Council, USSR wasn’t there to vote; could not veto action in Korea16 nations would send troops (90% Americans)Led by Douglas MacArthurUN involvement speech analysis
37Fighting Continues 54,000 American lives $67 billion in expenditures North Korean troops had been very successful; had pushed to perimeter of PusanSept 1950: UN troops push North Koreans back almost to Chinese borderNov 1950: Chinese send 300,000 troops and capture Seoul1951: MacArthur privately and publically calls for full scale attack on China and criticizes TrumanApril 11, 1951: removed from commandJuly 1951: Truce talks begin1953: cease fire signed and border established at 38th parallel 54,000 American lives$67 billion in expendituresAmericans lose faith in DemocratsMacArthur dismissal speech analysis.
38It’s All About CONTAINMENT The Korean War in One Slide!
41During late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizensThe cold war at home
42Fear of Communist Influences March 1947: Truman creates Federal Employee Loyalty ProgramLoyalty Review BoardInvestigate gov’t employees and fire any found to be disloyalMembership in 91 “subversive” organizations was grounds for suspicions
43Fear of Communist Influences House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigated Communist influence in movie industryBelieved Communists sneaking ideas/propaganda into movies
44Fear of Communist Influences 57 witnesses called to testifyHollywood Ten refused to cooperate – felt hearings were unconstitutional; sent to prisonCreated a blacklist of 500 actors, producers, and writers who would no longer work
45Spy Cases Stun the Nation 1950: German nuclear physicist implicated Ethel and Julius RosenbergWhen accused, pled the 5thClaimed being persecuted for being Jewish and racistFound guilty and sentenced to deathJune 1953: electrocuted1949: successfully exploded an atom bomb years earlier than anticipatedPeople began wondering if there was spying involved
46McCarthyismMost famous anti-Communist activist: Senator Joseph McCarthy“McCarthyism” -tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without evidenceClaimed to have names of up to 205 Communists in State Dept.Never actually gave names
47McCarthyism1954: made accusations against Army, resulted in televised Senate hearingsBullying witnesses lost him supportSenate accused him of actions unbecoming of a SenatorDied 3 years later
48Two nations live on the edge During the 1950s, the U.S. and USSR came to the brink of nuclear warTwo nations live on the edge
49The Problem of the Atomic Age Most frightening aspect of Cold War was constant threat of nuclear war1949: Russia detonated its first atomic bomb – way ahead of when the U.S. thought they would1952: U.S. explodes worlds first hydrogen bomb (H-bomb)1953: Soviets explode H-bombThe Nuclear Arms Race is ON
50Brinkmanship 1953: Dwight Eisenhower becomes 34th President Embraces policy of brinkmanshipprevent spread of communism by promising to use all force, including nuclear, against any aggressorMade navy and army smaller, increased air force to deliver bombsUSSR does the same
52Cold War in Middle East1951: Iran’s prime minister nationalizes oil fieldsBritain stopped buyingIranian economy tanks1953: To keep Iran from turning to USSR for help, CIA gives millions to Iranian rebelsWanted to overthrow current gov’tPut Shah back into powerPlan works – Shah returns and puts oil fields back into Western controlDownside is the Shah is a horrible ruler. Misuses $$, is only concerned with himself, is very harsh to his people. People resent him and U.S. for putting him into power. Helps create the current situation we are dealing with in Iran.
53Cold War in Guatemala1954: Ike believes Guatemalan gov’t is communist sympathizersGov’t had given 200,000 acres of American owned land to the peasantsCIA trained army which invaded GuatemalaGuatemalan army refused to defend their president; army’s leader became dictator
54The Cold War in the 1950s: USSR 1953: Nikita Khrushchev takes over after Stalin’s deathcondemns Stalin’s actionsSoviet people hoping Khrushchev would change thingsPolish and Hungarian citizens called for free elections, withdrawal of Soviet troops1956: Soviet tanks sent into Hungary, crush dissentEastern Europe remained under Soviet control.
55The Space RaceOctober 4, 1957: USSR launched first satellite, Sputnik, into orbitStarts the SPACE RACE!Two months earlier, USSR had tested an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)Khrushchev – “We will bury you”Awesome History Channel Clip on the Space Race
57U-2 IncidentMid-1950s: CIA making secret high-altitude flights over USSRMay 15, 1960: Eisenhower and Khrushchev summit scheduled to discuss arms raceMay 1, 1960: u2 plane shot down over USSRWith actual evidence of U.S. spying, Khrushchev cancels summit
58U-2 Spy Incident (1960)Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. Powers was captured, tried, and imprisoned!
59Kennedy and the cold war The Kennedy administration faced some of the most dangerous Soviet confrontation in American history.Kennedy and the cold war
60Election of 1960 Democratic nominee: John F. Kennedy Many worried he was too young (43), inexperienced, and CatholicRepublican nominee: Richard NixonJFK and Nixon engaged in first every televised debateWhile Nixon knew more, JFK came spoke better and looked betterDebate Video
62New Policies Eisenhower hadn’t done enough about USSR Soviets gaining loyalties in third-world countriesFlexible Response: prepare for a variety of military strategies instead of just relying on threat of nuclear weaponsIncreased defense spendingCreated the Green Berets
63Crises in Cuba!: Fidel Castro led a guerilla movement to topple dictator Fulgencio BatistaU.S. suspicious but recognized new gov’tBUT when Castro seized control of U.S. and British owned oil refineries, relationships worsenedU.S. created trade barriers with Cuba; Cuba began to rely more on USSR
64Bay of PigsMarch 1960: Eisenhower gave CIA permission to secretly train Cuban exiles to invade CubaHoped this would trigger a mass uprisingKennedy learns of plan only 9 days into officeApril 17, 1961: 1400ish exiles head for CubaAir strike didn’t knock out Cuban air force despite CIA reportsSmall advance group never reached the shoresMain group ended up facing 25,000 Cuban troops with Soviet tanks and jets
65Bay of Pigs Invading exiles were killed or imprisoned JFK negotiated for release of surviving commandos, paid ransom of $53 million in food and medical suppliedJFK made to look like a fool, Castro welcomed even more Soviet aid
66Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Video ClipRussiaWithdraws
671962: U2 spy plane found these missile silos in Cuba
68We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!