4ChordatesNotochord: In most skeletons a complex jointed skeleton develops and the notocord is retained in adults at the gelatinous material of discs between the vertebrae.dorsal hollow nerve cord: The brain and spinal cord develop from this.
6Phylum: Chordata Includes 3 Subphyla: Urochordata Cephalochordata Vertebrata
7Tunicates are Chordates! UrochordataSea Squirtssponge like - filter feederMost are sessile marine animals which adhere to rocksOnly have the pharyngeal gill slits ( lack the other 3) chordate traitsTunicates are Chordates!
9Vertebrates Have a Backbone (Chordate Coelomate Deuterostomes) 1. About 45,000 extant species of vertebrates are in subphylum Vertebrata. 2. Vertebrates have all four chordate characteristics sometime during their lives.
11Major Vertebrate Classes and Orders of the Class Mammalia Subphylum Vertebrata (backbone/vertebrae)Superclass Agnatha (jawless fishes – lampreys, etc.)Superclass Gnathostomates (jawed animals)Class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes sharks) Class Osteichthyes (bony fishes)Class Amphibia (frogs, salamanders, newts) Class Reptilia (lizards, snakes, turtles, gators) Class Aves (birds)Class Mammalia
12Superclass Agnatha Jawless fish are agnathans; 63 species belong to superclass Agnatha. Lampreys and hagfish are modern jawless fishes; they lack a bony skeletonThey have smooth non-scaly skin; have cylindrical bodies, and are up to a meter long.Many lampreys are filter feeders; others are parasitic with a round muscular mouth called a buccal cavity equipped with teeth to attach themselves to fish and suck nutrients from the host's circulatory system.
15Classes: Placodermia and Ostracodermia Placoderms are extinct jawed fishes.They were armored with heavy plates and had strong jaws.Small, jawless, and fin-less ostracoderms are extinct vertebrate (fossils).They were filter feeders also able to move water through their gills by muscular action.
17Amphibians About 3,900 species Characteristics:Are cold-blooded vertebrate (backbone)Lay their eggs in waterLack any skin coverings such as fur, scales or feathers
18Amphibians Young amphibians tend to resemble . small fish. Amphibian means "two lives," a reference to the change that frogs go through as . they move from egg to tadpole to frog. Even as adults, most frogs and other amphibians must stay close to water.
193 Orders of:Amphibians 1. Order Anura: frog and toads 2. Order Caudata : salamanders,. 3. Order Gymnophiona: caecilians
20Order : CaudataSalamanders & newts have a long body & tail, & two pair of legsSalamanders and newts are carnivorous, eating insects, snailsSalamanders walk with a side to side gait
21Caecilians are legless; burrow in soil and feed on worms, Order Gymnophiona: caeciliansCaecilians are legless; burrow in soil and feed on worms,
29Anatomy and Physiology of Amphibians A tongue is used for catching prey, and is attached at the front of the mouth.Eyelids called nicitating membranes keep eyes moist.Ears (tympanum) adapted for detecting sound waves.larynx produces calls
30Anatomy and Physiology of Amphibians Brain larger than fishes; cerebral cortex is more developed.Amphibians usually have small lungs ( described as 2 simple air sacs) supplemented by gas exchange across porous skin…..So frogs have both cutaneous and pulmonary respiration.Frogs have a closed double-loop circulatory system.A three-chambered heart (2atria, 1 ventricle) pumps mixed blood before and after it has gone to the lungs
31Anatomy and Physiology of Amphibians Skin is thin, smooth, and non-scaly, and contains numerous mucous glands; skin plays an active role in osmotic balance and respiration.Amphibians are ectothermic, depending upon external heat to regulate body temperature.If winter temperature drops too low, ectotherms become inactive and enter torpor
32Anatomy and Physiology of Amphibians The cloaca is the structure that both the colon and bladder empty intoThe structure on the male that resembles the oviduct on the female is the vestigial oviductThe kidneys are positioned retroperitonealThere are 2 types of teeth: vomerine and maxillary teethFrogs breath thru positive pressure, no ribs, no diaphragm, just gulp air and close nare and mouth and force oxygen into lungs
33Frog Metamorphosis Frogs and toads are tailless as adults; Frogs and toads are tailless as adults;The hind limbs are specialized for jumping.Frogs and toads have head and trunk fused; and do not have ribsFrogs live near fresh water,toads live in damp places away from water.They shed eggs into the water for external fertilization. Generally, eggs protected by a coat of jelly but not by a shell.Young hatch into aquatic larvae with gills (tadpoles).Larvae usually undergo metamorphosis to develop into a terrestrial adult.Frog Metamorphosis
34Osteichthyes: bony fish 20,000 species of bony fishes Bony fishes have a bony skeleton; most are ray-finned with thin, bony rays supporting fins.A few are lobe-finned fishes.Osteichthyes: bony fish
35Osteichthyes: bony fish Fish are covered by scales formed in rings, the rings are close together in the winter and further apart in the summer, so can be used to determine age of fish.The scales contain the pigment Chromatophores that create various color pigments.Mucus cover the fish skin and help to waterproof the skin ( serves as protection from parasites and reduces friction as fish moves thru water.
36Swim bladderIs a gas-filled sac whose pressure alters to regulate buoyancy and depth.Can be single chambered sac. ex trout3 chambered bladder ex codfishOr not present at all ex TunaIn addition to buoyancy, it can help amplify sound for better hearing
37Osteichthyes: bony fish The gills do not open separately and instead are covered by an operculumHave a 2 chamber heart: 1 atria, 1 ventricleTaste buds: fish have taste buds on the external surface of skins, lips and fins.Catfish have special barbels that are packed with taste buds
38Fins Bottom dwelling/ slow moving fish have square or rounded fins Ex Clown gobyFast swimming fish have deeply forked caudal finsEx Blue chromis
39Nervous systemThe chief function of the lateral line is to sense extremely low-frequency vibrations, as well as to sense the motion of other nearby fish and prey but in some species it can also detect weak electrical field (ex catfish and sharks)that detectOther fish, like the electric eel, can produce their own electricity.
40Determining the sex of fish varies from species to species ranging from super easy to impossible and….Some fish are born all males and the dominant in a pair will convert to the female ( the larger of the 2 in a pair)Others are all born females and the dominant converts to the male ( the larger of the 2 in a pair)
41Gonopodium in male live bearers such as platies and mollies Male PlatyFemale platy
42Difference between Fresh and salt water fish In general fresh water fish are more hardier than marine fish, they must withstand the rapid and dramatic changes in the water conditions that occurMost marine fish however are adapted to a constant environmental conditions
43Fresh water vs salt water Fresh water fish release large amount of urine, and don’t drink water, they take in large amount of water by osmosis ( have more salt in body than surrounding water)Salt water fish constantly drink water, due to the salt content in sea water….they must drink equal to 1% body weight each hour or could dehydrate ) more salt surrounding them than in their body and are threatened by water loss)
44Anabantoids Ex Bettas and Gourami Have axillary breathing organs (in addition to their gills) called labyrinth organThis organ consists of tiny folded membranes located in the head between gills and helps the fish to live in areas with poor water conditionsDeny them access to water surface and they will drown
45Oxygen in H2OFish use over 20% of their total energy expenditure just to breathWater temperature, altitude, time of day, and season can all affect the amount of oxygen in the water; water holds less oxygen at warmer temperatures and high altitudes.DO is measured either in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or "percent saturation
46Designated Use Lowest acceptable DO levels (mg/l)* Warm water fish need a minimum of 5(mg/l DO)Cold water fish need a minimum of 6(mg/l DO) above 7 mg/L may be required for spawningAs dissolved oxygen levels in water drop below 5 mg/L, aquatic life is put under stressLess than 2 (mg/l DO) will not support aquatic life
52Do Fish sleep?Most all fish spend time in an energy-saving state that can be called "rest", and we might even call their behavior "sleep", though it is probably different than "sleep" in most land animals .The best-known 'sleepers' are the parrotfishes (family Scaridae).Many parrotfishes find a suitable spot on the seafloor and secrete a mucus envelope in which they spend the night.
53Do Fish sleep?Many fish, like Bass and perch, rest on or under logs at night.Coral reef fish active in the day, hide and rest in crevices and cracks in the reef to avoid being eaten at night.The resting behavior of fish is very different from their behavior the rest of the day.
57Coelacanths:Once “believed” to be extinct for 70,000,000 years, based on fossil “evidence”.Now hundreds have been caught.
58Fish Characteristics: Are cold-blooded vertebrate (backbone) Live in waterUsually have paired fins, gills, and scales
59Fish Most fish lay large numbers of eggs, but some have live birth. Most fish breathe by drawing water over four or five pairs of gills.
60Dyed FishWith all of the beautifully colored fish in the world, it is amazing that people feel the need to "improve upon" natural beauty.And yet, fish stores around the world stock fish that have been dipped, tattooed, or injected with dyes.These fish suffer a very high immediate mortality rate, and those that survive often have a greatly increased chance of future illness.
61TattoosSome fish are tattooed with very intricate patterns that would look gorgeous on a human.Unlike human recipients of tattoos, these fish have not given their permission to painfully modify their body.Further, it is harder for a fish to protect against follow-up infection than it is for a human to protect against the same.
63The colors are tattoed onto the body. Is this what we want to be doing to otheranimals simple for our own pleasure?
64DippingAnother process involves dipping fish in a chemical that burns away the slime-coat followed by a dip in high-concentration dye. Though not as invasive as tattooing or injection, it removes the fishes' first line of protection and then coats the gills and probably stomach of the fish affectedThis affects respiration and likely other body functions, as well.
65Injection Other fish are injected with dye. In some cases, this creates an all-over color change. In others, it creates little pockets of dye.One of the most considerable changes comes from the injection of fluorescent dye into the Glassfish.This creates little fluorescent pockets in the fish.While neat-looking, the process involves a needle bore that would be the equivalent of using a #2 pencil as a needle for a human.
66Fish Feel PainWhile it may seem obvious that fish are able to feel pain, like every other animal, some people still think of fish as swimming vegetables.In fact, regarding the ability to feel pain, fish are equal to dogs, cats, and all other animals. Dr. Donald Broom, scientific advisor to the British government, explains,"The scientific literature is quite clear. Anatomically, physiologically and biologically, the pain system in fish is virtually the same as in birds and mammals."
67Genetically Engineered fish Glo fishAre zebra danios that have
68The process, begins by adding a fluorescence gene to the fish before it hatches from its egg. Once the gene integrates into the genome of the embryo, the developing fish will be able to pass the fluorescence gene along to its offspring upon maturity.Because of this, the gene only needs to be added to one embryo; from that point forward, all subsequent fluorescent fish are the result of traditional breeding.
69Green glo fish: have a green fluorescent protein (GFP), originally extracted from a jellyfish, that naturally produced bright green bioluminescence.red fluorescent zebra fish have a red color by adding a gene from a sea coral,yellow fluorescent zebra fish, by adding a variant of the jellyfish gene
70Blood red Parrot fishBecause this hybrid cichlid has various anatomical deformities, controversy exists over the ethics of creating the Blood Parrot. One of the most obvious, and also deadly, deformities is its mouth, which only has very narrow vertical opening. This makes blood parrot very hard to feed.
76ChondrichthyesThe class of Cartilaginous fish (shark,skates, and rays)850 species of sharks, rays, and skates
77Chondrichthyes Sharks have five to seven gill slits on both sides of the pharynx; no gill covers. Body covered by epidermal placoid (tooth-like) scales; teeth are enlarged scales. Sharks have a streamlined bodySharp vision, colorblindTeeth embedded in gum, not anchored in jaw
78ChondrichthyesThree senses detect: smells, electric currents, pressure (a lateral line system).Have a 2 chambered heart (1 atria, 1 ventricle)Most are fast predators; great white shark eats dolphins and seals.
79ChondrichthyesRays & skates live on ocean floor; pectoral fins enlarged into wing-like fins.Stingrays have a venomous spine. Electric rays stun prey with electric shock of over 300 volts.
81MOST COMMON SHARKThe piked dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) is very abundant, especially in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is a small shark, about 63 inches (1.6 m) long.
82Closed Circulatory Systems (Blood Loops) Fish (One loop) - Heart to gills to body to heartAmphibians- Larvae (one loop)- Adult (two loops)* Heart to the lungs and back to the heart* Heart to the body and back to the heartReptiles (two loops – three chambered heart)Birds (two loops – four chambered heart)Mammals (two loops – four chambered heart)
84Reptiles Characteristics: Are dioecious Most are oviparous: Lay leathery eggs on landAre often called cold-blooded: they can't regulate their own body temperature
85Reptiles 6,000 species Characteristics: Have scales Have a 3 chambered heart ( 2atria, 1ventricle)Respiration: lungs more finely divided than Amphibians, have jointed ribs that expand lungs
86Reptiles Reptiles do not use energy to fuel internal "furnaces" Although reptiles breathe through lungs, some reptiles can also absorb oxygen in water through their mouth.
87Reptile Orders: 1. Squamata: lizards and snakes 2. Chelonia: Turtles (aquatic), and tortoises (land)3.Crocodila: crocodiles and alligators
88Snakes: Characteristics: 3 pit vipors in North America are: cottonmouth, copperhead and rattlesnake3 largest snakes: python, Boa, AnacondaLargest venomous snake is king cobra
89Snakes: Characteristics: Pit vipors use pits to see warm objects in dark.
90Snakes constitute the suborder Serpentes (or Ophidia ) Most snakes can climb and almost all can swim.By looking at a snake, no one can distinguish between a male or female.Snakes also pick up some airborne vibrations via their lungs.New Zealand has no snakes at all!Snakes are incapable of learning. This is because they lack the enlarged Cerebral Hemispheres found in birds and mammals, this part of the brain controls learning and thought.
91Snakes move by using special muscles attached to their ribs Snakes move by using special muscles attached to their ribs. If you put a snake on a smooth piece of glass, the snake will not be able to move because there is nothing to grab onto.Snakes can swallow big prey, three times bigger than their own mouth.. On a couple of occasions, some snakes have swallowed whole Tigers.Most snakes have over 200 teeth. They use these teeth to hold their prey in place while eating. They cannot chew with these teeth because they are pointing backwards The body of the snake contains a string of vertebrae ( more than 120 in the body and tail and in some species as many as 585)
92Snakes are deaf to airborne sounds. Snakes move slower than an adult human can run; the fastest recorded speed achieved by any snake is about 13 km/hr (8 mph), but few can go that fast.Snakes have no movable eyelids or external ears.You can't tell the age of a rattlesnake by counting its rattles because it gets a new rattle each time it sheds its skin, which can occur 1 to 6 times per year.Common Cobra venom is not on the list of top 10 venoms yet is still 40 times more toxic than cyanideThe fastest moving land snake is the Black Mamba
93Jaws can readily dislocate to engulf large food. A tongue collects airborne molecules to transfer them to Jacobson's organ for tasting. Some are poisonous with special fangs.Snakes.
95Snakes.The photo is of the hip region of Najash rionegrina, an extinct snake.The right femur is in the upper part of the photoOnce upon a time, snakes had legs, and a new discovery reveals at least one had hips too.The real kicker is that the snake has hip vertebrae, which likely allowed the critter to use its legs to dig and crawl.
109God’s awesome design defies evolution: - Each toe has thousands of setae.- Each setal has thousands of spatulae.Each spatulae is able to adhere (stick) to the molecules of any substance.- “Van der Waals” forces are the forces that hold each spatulae to the molecules.
110Man-made, synthetic “adhesive” modeled from the Gecko
116Take a guess ?Turtles have a heavy shell fused to the ribs and thoracic vertebrae.Turtles lack teeth but use a sharp beak.Sea turtles must return to lay eggs onshoreChelonia: Turtle
117"What is the difference between a turtle, a tortoise and a terrapin?" A turtle is any reptile that lives in a shell.A tortoise is a turtle that lives on the land but can enter the water for a drink, to cool off or to escape and evade predators.A terrapin is a turtle that lives primarily in water, generally leaving only to lay eggs or to bask in the sun.
118The carapace (top) and the plastron (bottom) are joined along the sides by a part called the bridge
120difficult to tell a male from a female in most turtles, until they are older The males of all turtles will have a longer, thicker tail, with the cloaca located closer to the tip of the tail, whereas females with have a smaller, thinner tail with the vent closer to the main part of the body.FemaleMale
121In some of the more commonly kept turtles (Sliders, some Maps, Painteds, Cooters), males will also have exceptionally long foreclaws; the females having smaller ones.FemaleMale
122Males in some species will also display a concave or dented-in plastron. This is to allow the male to better mount the female when mating. Adult females which have laid a clutch of eggs will have a semi-pliable anal section of the plastron.
123temperature of the egg during incubation The temperature of the egg during incubation determines the sex of a turtle.The ratio of males to females is 1:1 at the pivotal temperature of 29 C.; higher temperatures favor the formation of females, and lower temperatures favor the formation of males.
124Turtle Shell designs 1. Buttresses The flying buttresses of a cathedral strengthen its walls to support the massive weights of its towering cupolasIn a turtle shell these buttresses are brought inside the archIn architecture, a cupola is a small, most-often dome-like structure, on top of a building
1283. Geodesic dome:It is a spherical or partial-spherical shell structure based on a network of great circles (geodesics) lying on the surface of a sphere.The geodesics intersect to form triangular elements that have local triangular rigidity and also distribute the stress across the entire structure
131Turtles can breathe out of their butts. Turtles have amazing anaerobic capabilities, which allow them to survive on very little oxygen for prolonged periods of time. Like most animals/reptiles, they DO have lungs which take in air through the mouth and nose.But in a few species, there is a pair of sacs, or bursae that are connected to the internal portion of the cloacal opening, a single exit that acts as both the port for sexual reproduction and digestive system elimination.
132They can suck water into their cloaca, and into two pockets that come off the chamber. These pockets are lined with veins, and the turtles can absorb oxygen from the water into their blood. The Fitzroy River turtle is one of the select few who can stay underwater, inhale water through the cloacal opening, and extract oxygen for its system.They also can breathe that way on land
133Difference between a Croc and a Gator Difference between a Croc and a GatorCrocodile: Narrow mouth, protruding teeth These are the only 4 chambered heart reptilesAlligator: broad snout, conical teethThese are the only 4 chambered heart reptiles
134Dinosaurs are classified as Reptiles Dinosaurs varied in size and behavior; some had a bipedal stance, other quadrapedal.Dinosaurs were taken on the Ark(Hebrew for Ark = Box)Dinosaurs died out later due to lack of vegetation, cold, etc.
135Dinosaurs and the Bible? Job 40:15 "Look now at the behemoth, which I made along with you;He eats grass like an ox.16 See now, his strength is in his hips,And his power is in his stomach muscles.17 He moves his tail like a cedar tree;