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Emerging Technologies Law Enforcement II. Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with.

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Presentation on theme: "Emerging Technologies Law Enforcement II. Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emerging Technologies Law Enforcement II

2 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Copyright and Terms of Service Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2011. These materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts’ and schools’ educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only, without obtaining written permission of TEA. 3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. 4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. Contact TEA Copyrights with any questions you may have.TEA Copyrights 2

3 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Agency Considerations Financial challenges – Budget of the agency – Cost savings – Service and maintenance costs of technology – National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) Technology Decision Tool – to help an agency assess the cost benefit of its technology National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) Technology Decision Tool 3

4 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Agency Considerations (continued) Training – Little/no training vs. extensive training – Size of the agency Operational needs – Geographical area that the agency serves – Demographics of the area that the agency serves – Increased efficiency and effectiveness – Expected outcome of the technology’s use 4

5 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Agency Considerations (continued) Necessity vs. Luxury – Will the technology improve the agency’s basic services? – Does the technology improve the response time? – Does the technology provide more information to the officer when needed? – Will the use of the technology increase the confidence of the public? – Will the use of the technology increase officer safety and efficiency? 5

6 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Currently Used Technologies: Prevention Radios – Wireless and digital capabilities – Ability to share information in seconds (i.e. pictures, records, fingerprints, video footage) – Ability to share in secure, real-time mode 6

7 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Currently Used Technologies: Prevention (continued) Mobile Computer Systems within a Patrol Unit – Computerized records check – Dispatch information – Report-writing from the field Reduces the amount of paperwork Improves an officer’s availability – Graphical Information Systems (GIS) – mapping technology 7

8 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Currently Used Technologies: Prevention (continued) Audio/Video Cameras – In-car cameras – Photo enforcement system At traffic lights Monitor speeding and red-light violations – Graffiti Cameras Talking surveillance – warns the person of illegal behavior, such as graffiti spraying, illegal dumping, or loitering Warns the person that a picture, through video, is being captured Is wireless and solar-powered for easy movability of camera 8

9 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Currently Used Technologies: Investigation Crime Lights – Differing preset light wavelengths that detect hair, fibers, and body fluids – Time efficient – speeds up time it takes to process a crime scene Criminal Investigations Record Systems – Software matches suspects to particular crimes – Matches occur through the use of aliases, partial names, physical descriptions, or vehicle descriptions 9

10 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Currently Used Technologies: Investigation (continued) Thermal Imaging – Produces images of radiated or reflected surface energy – Assists in finding fleeing fugitives, missing children, or missing elderly persons – Takes less time for locating – Easy use, storage, and maintenance 10

11 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Currently Used Technologies: Protection In-car camera – increases officer accountability and protects officers falsely accused of unprofessional behavior License Plate Tag Readers – automatically recognizes license plates to locate stolen vehicles Global Positioning System (GPS) – track the location of police units Robots – to defuse bombs or to take real-time video in high-risk areas 11

12 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Currently Used Technologies: Protection (continued) Weapons – Non-lethal Stun gun – emits volts of electricity affecting the major motor muscles; suspects are disarmed and incapacitated with little to no physical side effects Beanbag gun – Lethal Service handgun Shotgun 12

13 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Currently Used Technologies: Prosecution Diagramming Systems – produces high-quality digital diagrams that can be used in court In-car Camera System – captures evidence that can be used as a silent witness (i.e. traffic stops, DWI’s) 13

14 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Prevention Cell phone applications – Can look up a suspect’s records from a phone – Can locate persons of interest, which can lead to arrests – Has field-reporting capabilities – Uses nationwide data transfer networks 14

15 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Prevention (continued) Automobile pursuit systems – Deploys GPS tag to track fleeing suspect vehicle – Launches from the grille of the patrol vehicle – Challenges Ineffective adhesive on tag Operator error Distance/terrain-related misses 15

16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Investigation Central database software – multi-agency sharing of information Side scan sonar for water searches – Locates drowning victims – More time efficient – Challenge: cannot detect smaller objects 16

17 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Investigation (continued) Forensic comparison examinations – High-resolution cameras and light sources to improve results – Documents comparison process 17

18 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Investigation (continued) Aviation technology – Low cost (as opposed to helicopters) – Safe alternative – Light supporting aircraft – Unmanned aircraft systems Operated via remote control Small systems – 5 pounds or less Flies to altitudes of 500-1500 feet Easy to fly Camera mounted to search for missing children/elderly and/or suspects 18

19 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Investigation (continued) Social media – Search engines To look up individuals, phone numbers (cell and landlines), and addresses To upload images to search for likenesses To look up names of neighbors – Microblogs One-way feed of information Limited number of characters Online journals/diaries 19

20 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Protection Body-Worn Cameras – Reduces agency liability and citizen complaints – Provides departmental transparency to citizens – Very mobile and easy to attach – Can integrate with in-car video systems – Less expensive option for agencies without in-car video systems – Challenge: battery life 20

21 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Protection (continued) Automobile pursuit systems – Avoids dangerous pursuits – Increases officer and public safety 21

22 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Newly Developed Technologies in Use: Prosecution Social Media – Use as evidence – Challenge: Courts divided on reasonable expectation of privacy Forensic Comparison Examinations – Meets the criteria of the Daubert standard in court Body-Worn Cameras – Provides evidence in court 22

23 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Prevention Facial-recognition software – Compares images with previously arrested or convicted persons – Merged with driver’s license and identification systems Enhanced GIS capabilities – Crime analysis regarding previous activity or time periods to predict future activity – Tracking vehicles and personnel 23

24 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Prevention (continued) Aviation technology – Unmanned drones Border protection Drug enforcement agencies Surveillance Missions conducted without harm to humans High-quality images/videos Track targets 24

25 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Prevention (continued) Vehicle camera systems and body-worn cameras – Automatic license plate recognition – Facial-recognition software – Voice analysis system – Follow suspects’ movements 25

26 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Investigation Facial-recognition systems Databases – Shoeprint database – Forensic mapping database – Acoustic gunshot detection database 26

27 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Investigation (continued) Fingerprint technology – Contactless fingerprinting – Scans fingerprints with no pressure – Does not required trained operators – Faster to produce – Natural state of the fingerprint, thus eliminating inconsistencies in collection 27

28 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Protection Enhanced 911 services (Next Generation 911) – Public’s ability to send texts, pictures, and/or video through the 911 system – Will decrease response time – Will increase productivity Enhanced satellite images software – overlays onto satellite images of criminals’ residences and high-risk areas 28

29 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Protection (continued) Meta-material cloaking – Holographic discs that camouflage into the environment – Developing shape-changing liquids Metabolic supplements – Oral consumption or injections – Tailors to specific needs (i.e. eating, rest, energy, endurance) of officer 29

30 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Protection (continued) Weapons – Lethal Personalization of handgun whereby only authorized user can fire Combination weapons with high capacity, stacked ammunition; programmable, rapid, and quickly reloadable ammunition (i.e. 24,000 grenade rounds per minute launched via internet connection) 30

31 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Protection (continued) Weapons – Non-lethal – used for riot control and defense of high-risk areas Sound waves – projection of high decibel sound waves causing persons to move Smells – significant odors that induce vomiting, inability to focus, and dulling of other senses; produces a desire to move from the area Light – high-intensity focus that creates confusion Heat – microwaves sent to heat up the targeted areas; painful and uncomfortable; incapacitates target 31

32 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Protection (continued) Body Armor – Material not only protects from bullet and knife penetration, but also protects from blunt trauma force – Production of lightweight body armor with layers of ballistic material and ceramic composites, which gives three times the protection – Power assisted/hydraulic suit of armor – senses the direction of movement; prevents muscle strain; enhances strength, speed, and endurance 32

33 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Protection (continued) Wearable computer with an optical head- mounted display – Records and analyzes everything seen by the officer – Has a built-in screen equipped with information about area and facial recognition system 33

34 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Developing Technologies: Prosecution Fingerprint technology – Higher-quality images – No need for expert witness testimony verifying suspect’s print Enhanced 911 services – Additional real-time evidence accumulation 34

35 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Continuing Education Laws change – Every two years the state legislature makes new laws and changes old ones – It is important for officers to stay current on these new laws because they impact the way that an officer does his or her job – Failure to stay current on new laws through continuing education could result in violations of civil rights, criminal penalties, or job loss 35

36 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Continuing Education (continued) Well-rounded – Officers who attend continuing education (in-service) training are better qualified to do their jobs – Maintaining a student’s perspective helps officers to better relate to those they serve – Officers stay current on new trends and methods for investigating and performing their job duties, leaving less for the investigators to do after the report has been taken – Being better educated reflects in court, as well as in everything an officer does 36

37 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Continuing Education (continued) Higher pay – Many departments have higher pay scales for officers with a college education, or intermediate, advanced, or master level Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education (TCLEOSE) certifications Promotion – Most departments require a certain education or certification level in order to promote to higher ranks within the department Keep current – Continuing education keeps officers up-to-date on emerging technologies 37

38 Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2013. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Resources Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education (TCLEOSE) http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?article_id=1527 &fuseaction=display&issue_id=62008 http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?article_id=1527 &fuseaction=display&issue_id=62008 http://www.nena.org/?NG911_Project http://www.its.dot.gov/ng911/ https://www.justnet.org/ https://www.justnet.org/pdf/SharingResources_508.pdf https://www.justnet.org/pdf/Technology-Decision-Tool.pdf https://www.justnet.org/school_safety.html Do an Internet search for the following: – Listverse top 10 future law enforcement technologies – Top Law Enforcement Officials to Convene Over Latest in Police Technology – Emerging technologies in law enforcement: their impact on officer response and efficiency 38


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