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Term 3 Science Ace Current photosynthetic technology Updated 2011 Copyright Ng Wei Kai (1i1 16)

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Presentation on theme: "Term 3 Science Ace Current photosynthetic technology Updated 2011 Copyright Ng Wei Kai (1i1 16)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Term 3 Science Ace Current photosynthetic technology Updated 2011 Copyright Ng Wei Kai (1i1 16)

2 Abstract Have you ever wondered what is being done to save this earth from global warming. Through this project, I will be introducing you to two forms of photosynthetic technology which are currently being researched on and their potential uses.

3 Photosynthetic technology #1 Hydrogen from algae

4 Hydrogen as a fuel  Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. In fact, a hydrogen atom consists of only one proton and one electron.  Hydrogen is high in energy but burning it produces almost zero pollution, making it a viable alternative source of fuel

5 How hydrogen fuel works?  A fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water for the vehicle or machine.  The fuel cell converts the energy produced into usable electric power. It will produce electricity as long as fuel hydrogen is supplied, never losing its charge. Pure water is released as a clean by-product.

6 Hydrogen fuel Singapore’s first hybrid fuel bus Hydrogen fuel At work

7 Disadvantages of hydrogen  hydrogen does not occur naturally as a gas on the Earth. It is always combined with other elements to form new compounds.  For example, water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen (H 2 O).

8 Separating into hydrogen  Here are some ways to obtain hydrogen by separating compounds into constituent elements:  Hydrogen can be separated from hydrocarbons via reforming.  Water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen via electrolysis.

9 How this relates to my project?  So, how does the use of hydrogen as a fuel relate to my project of photosynthetic technology.  Firstly, the methods of obtaining hydrogen stated in the previous page are not environmentally friendly.  Therefore, scientists have come up with a new way to obtain the element…

10 Hydrogen from algae  Researchers at the University of California found out that depriving algae of sulphur hinders oxygen flow and in turn increases its natural H2 production.  Using a bioreactor comprised of a network of sealed tubes for cultivating algae and extracting pure H2, the gas could be produced without much environmental pollution.

11 Pictures of algae

12 Feasibility of the idea  Using this method, hydrogen could be $0.31 per kilowatt-hour.  However, obtaining hydrogen via reforming costs only $0.05 per kilowatt- hour.  Therefore, researchers will have to modify their idea to improve efficiency and reduce costs.

13 Advantages of idea  This discovery will enable the clean and cost- effective production of hydrogen gas for use as an alternative fuel source. Let’s proceed to the next photosynthetic technology…

14 Photosynthetic technology #2 Animals which photosynthesize

15 Photosynthesis in plants  I am sure that most of us here know that plants have the amazing ability to photosynthesize to make food.  It is also known that animals cannot photosynthesize.  However, researchers have made a discovery which will stun everyone…

16 Cyanobacteria  The researchers focused on cyanobacteria, a microbe responsible for almost 50% of the earth's photosynthetic ability.  They aimed to harness the organisms' photosynthetic powers by engineering them to generate fuel.

17 What they did  In an experiment, researchers injected fluorescently labelled cyanobacteria into zebra fish embryos…

18 Why was the Zebrafish used? *Additional  The zebrafish, unlike other ordinary fishes, has a transparent body so it is easy to observe during development, resulting in it becoming an important vertebrate model organism in scientific research.

19 In the end…  Later on, the fishes survived and grew, as did the cyanobacteria living inside their cells. The fish tolerated the cyanobacteria very well!  you can see the cyanobacteria living inside the embryos in the video here: bcpid42529855001?bctid=82893472001

20 Pictures of zebrafish Before After

21 Later on…  Unfortunately, the cyanobacteria could not generate enough energy to sustain the embryos.  Researchers have to work on methods to increase the cyanobacteria production to make the idea feasible.

22 Significance of discovery  The very fact that fish and bacteria survived as one does not mean that animals will be able to photosynthesize anytime soon.  Even so this discovery was a giant leap for mankind in terms of genetic engineering.

23 Advantages of idea  Having animals which have the ability to photosynthesize will release significant amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere, slowing down the rate of global warming.  Animals can make their own food so they will not have to be fed.

24 Conclusion Apart from the two forms of photosynthetic technology I have mentioned, mankind are also exploring new possibilities to help keep the earth green. I will be looking forward to newer and more exciting ideas in the future.

25 Bibliography  editors/25139/ editors/25139/  010-05/injection-cyanobacteria-makes- zebrafish-embryos-photosynthetic-sort 010-05/injection-cyanobacteria-makes- zebrafish-embryos-photosynthetic-sort  http://techtransfer.universityofcalifornia.e du/NCD/18657.html http://techtransfer.universityofcalifornia.e du/NCD/18657.html

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