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NAT Network Address Translation Presented by Snoopers Eduardo Segura Shenal Shroff Shinichi Nishiyama Suyou He Thu Nguyen.

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Presentation on theme: "NAT Network Address Translation Presented by Snoopers Eduardo Segura Shenal Shroff Shinichi Nishiyama Suyou He Thu Nguyen."— Presentation transcript:

1 NAT Network Address Translation Presented by Snoopers Eduardo Segura Shenal Shroff Shinichi Nishiyama Suyou He Thu Nguyen

2 Agenda Why NAT? Solution How does it work? Types Possible attacks NAT Pros and Cons Conclusion

3 Why NAT? Early ’90s: Signs of IPv4 addresses depleting “The two most compelling problems facing the IP Internet are IP address depletion and scaling in routing. (…) The address reuse solution is to place Network Address Translators (NAT) at the borders of stub domains.” K. Egevang, P. Francis RFC 1631: The IP Network Address Translator May, 1994

4 Solution A mapping: many-to-one Many internal addresses -> one external

5 How does NAT work? NAT is used to map IP addresses between non-routable private and public addresses. It allows registered public IP addresses to be shared by several hosts on private network.

6 How does NAT work? - Outgoing Internal host sends packet NAT box stores:  Source IP  Source port  Destination IP  Destination port Then modifies addresses in packet And sends it

7 How does NAT work? – Incoming External host sends packet NAT box searches stored info The search uses source IP : source port Modifies destination addresses in packet Sends it to internal host

8 NAT types: Mapping configuration -1 Static NAT: One-to- one mapping between internal and external addresses Dynamic NAT: Mapping internal to external from group of external addresses

9 NAT types: Mapping configuration –2 Overloading NAT: Mapping multiple internal addresses to single external address with different port #s (known also as PAT). Overlapping NAT: Same range of addresses are used in two different networks.

10 NAT Types - 2 Behaviors with respect to UDP-based bindings  Symmetric  Full-cone  Restricted-cone  Port-restricted-cone The difference lies in how they process responses from external hosts Today, NAT boxes use a mix, dynamically switching between types

11 “Security” features NAT hides internal addresses from Internet But it was NOT designed for security Any security is just a side-effect:  If packet’s source address not in table { drop it; } And this depends on the type of NAT!  Ex: “Full cone NAT” allows external packets to go right through, if configured.

12 Possible attacks to NAT Assume no non-related attacks:  No user-initiated malware  No buffer overflows or other hacks Then it is possible to use:  Source spoofing  Host counting  Passive fingerprinting  Internal network mapping

13 Attack to NAT: Source Spoofing An attacker can “inject” packets into the network To do this, he uses a fake source IP address Sometimes, all you need is one packet! SQL slammer fits in one UDP packet As long as the source address is in the NAT’s table, it’ll get through

14 Attack to NAT: Host Counting Uses IP header “id” field Most implementations just put a counter NAT boxes don’t change it Study gaps in these numbers to determine # of hosts

15 Attack to NAT: Fingerprinting Every TCP/IP implementation is different Many issues are left open in RFCs Hence, every TCP/IP stack is unique Different values for: TTL, SEQ, flags, etc. By carefully studying these differences, it is possible to identify the OS!

16 Attack to NAT: Network Mapping Technique uses “ICMP TTL Exceeded” messages Attacker injects packets with low TTL values Internal routers generate TTL exceeded replies Attacker uses these messages to carefully map the internal network!

17 NAT pros and cons NAT provides a short-term solution to the shortage of IPv4 addresses But it is NOT a firewall. Clever attackers can obtain information anyway In addition, it breaks other protocols -IP addr. info in payload -Incompatibility between IPsec AH and NAT Can become a management nightmare Hides source of attack, if internal

18 Conclusion Dynamic NAT is natural firewall between private network and public networks/Internet. NAT is not a firewall. NAT is for reusing IP addresses. Hosts in private network can share limited public IP addresses. NAT breaks end-to-end connectivity model. Solution: ALG NAT is not secure. NAT will leak information

19 References Jeff Tyson, How Network Address Translation Works RFC The IP Network Address Translator (NAT) RFC Address Allocation for Private Internets Lisa Phife, The Trouble with NAT Geoff Huston, Anatomy: A Look Inside Network Address Translators -3/anatomy.html -3/anatomy.html RFC Traditional IP Network Address Translator RFC STUN - Simple Traversal of UDP Through NATs

20 And that’s it!


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