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STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 23 SECTION 5 MSTC Physics C

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Mutual Inductance If 2 coils of wire are placed near one another, a changing I in one will induce an emf in the other From Faradayε 2 α (dΦ 2 /dt) where Φ 2 is due to I 1 N 2 Φ 2 α I 1 N 2 Φ 2 = MI 1 M = mutual inductance Thereforeε 2 = -N 2 (dΦ 2 /dt) = -N 2 d/dt(MI/N 2 ) = -M(dI 1 /dt) [M] = Wb/A = Henry, H

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Mutual Inductance ε 2 = -M(dI 1 /dt) Mutual inductance depends on - size - shape - number of turns - relative positions of 2 coils - whether a ferromagnetic material is present

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Factors That Change Inductance NUMBER OF WIRE WRAPS, OR "TURNS" IN THE COIL: All other factors being equal, a greater number of turns of wire in the coil results in greater inductance; fewer turns of wire in the coil results in less inductance. Explanation: More turns of wire means that the coil will generate a greater amount of magnetic field force (measured in amp-turns!), for a given amount of coil current.

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Factors That Change Inductance COIL AREA: All other factors being equal, greater coil area (as measured looking lengthwise through the coil, at the cross-section of the core) results in greater inductance; less coil area results in less inductance. Explanation: Greater coil area presents less opposition to the formation of magnetic field flux, for a given amount of field force (amp-turns).

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Factors That Change Inductance COIL LENGTH: All other factors being equal, the longer the coil's length, the less inductance; the shorter the coil's length, the greater the inductance. Explanation: A longer path for the magnetic field flux to take results in more opposition to the formation of that flux for any given amount of field force (amp-turns).

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Factors That Change Inductance CORE MATERIAL: All other factors being equal, the greater the magnetic permeability of the core which the coil is wrapped around, the greater the inductance; the less the permeability of the core, the less the inductance. Explanation: A core material with greater magnetic permeability results in greater magnetic field flux for any given amount of field force (amp-turns).

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Sample Problem Two coils, held in fixed positions, have a mutual inductance of 100 μH. What is the peak voltage in one of the coils when a sinusoidal current is given by I = (10A) sin (1000t) flows in the other coil?

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Sample Problem A 70 turn solenoid is 5 cm long, 1 cm in diameter, and carries a 2 A current. A single loop of wire, 3 cm in diameter, is help perpendicular to the axis of the solenoid. What is the mutual inductance of the two if the plane of the loop passes through the center of the solenoid?

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Self Inductance Inductance also applies to an isolated single coil of N turns Changing I in coil produces a Φ in coil that changes and induces an ε that tries to oppose ΔΦ Like before NΦ α I NΦ = LIL = self inductance [L] = Henry, H So ε = - N(dΦ/dt) = -Nd/dt(LI/N) = -L(dI/dt)

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Inductor Coil that has a significant self-inductance

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Inductor Uses? traffic light sensor Metal detector Stun guns in combination with a capacitor to tune your radio

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Sample Problem A mH inductor has a length that is four times its diameter. It if is wound with 22 turns per centimeter, what is its length?

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Energy Stored in an Inductor Inductors store energy U = ½ L I 2

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Sample Problem Calculate the energy associated with the magnetic field of a 200 turn solenoid in which a current of 1.75 A produces a flux of Wb in each turn.

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Sample Problem Two nearby solenoids, A and B, sharing the same cylindrical axis, have 400 and 700 turns, respectively. A current of 3.5 A in coil A produces a flux of 300 μWb at the center of A and a flux of 90 μWb at the center of B. (a) Calculate the mutual inductance of the two solenoids. (b) What is the self inductance of coil A? (c) What emf will be induced in coil B when the current in coil A increases at the rate of 0.5 A/s?

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