Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:History and Governments Section 2:Section 2:Cultures and Lifestyles Visual Summary
Chapter Intro 1 Regions Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica are grouped together more because of their nearness to one another than because of any similarities among their peoples. Even though their cultures are different, many of the people share a similar history of colonization. Today, after achieving independence, this region’s people are creating a new identity for themselves that blends traditional beliefs with modern ideas. How does a people’s past influence its present and future?
Chapter Intro 2 Section 1: History and Governments Geographic factors influence where people settle. Asian and Pacific peoples settled Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania thousands of years ago. Europeans later migrated to the region because of its rich resources.
Chapter Intro 2 Section 2: Cultures and Lifestyles Culture groups shape human systems. Peoples from different parts of the world have helped shape the cultures of Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania. For example, people of European descent make up the primary ethnic groups in Australia and New Zealand. However, the populations of native groups are growing. As a result of this population mix, cultures are changing.
Section 1-Key Terms Future rodeo cowboys in Australia practice their skills using an empty steel drum suspended on a rope. A rodeo rider must ride an angry bull or a bucking horse for at least eight seconds. Falling off before the eight seconds is up results in a score of zero. During outback rodeos, Aborigines and Australians of European descent gather to compete in a variety of events. Read this section to learn more about the history of the people of Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania.
A.A B.B Section 1-Polling Question Do you believe Britain had a right to claim land the Aborigines considered traditional hunting grounds? A.Yes B.No
Section 1 Scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of fresh fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C, killed thousands of the first Pacific Islands explorer-sailors. Before the discovery of lemon and lime juice as a preventative, Captain James Cook experimented somewhat successfully with sauerkraut, vinegar, and a native New Zealand plant now called “Cook’s scurvy grass.”
Section 1 First Settlers The region’s first settlers came from Asia and islands in the Pacific Ocean.
Section 1 First Settlers (cont.) About 40,000 years ago, the Earth was in the Ice Age. Ocean levels were lower than they are today, permitting Southeast Asians to travel to Oceania and Australia either by land or by canoe.
Section 1 First Settlers (cont.) As the Ice Age ended, the ocean levels rose and the people who had migrated to Oceania and Australia were cut off from the rest of the world.
Section 1 First Settlers (cont.) The people now called Aborigines are the descendants of these first Australians. Early Aborigines traveled in small family groups around Australia, hunting, gathering plants, and searching for water.
Section 1 First Settlers (cont.) To hunt for small animals, Aborigines developed a special weapon called a boomerang—a flat, bent, wooden tool that hunters throw to stun prey. boomerang If the boomerang misses its target, it sails back to the hunter.
Section 1 First Settlers (cont.) The Aborigines believe that powerful spirits created the land and that their role as a people is to care for it. Ancient rock paintings and stories tell much about their early history.
Section 1 First Settlers (cont.) By 1500 B. C., other people from Southeast Asia developed large canoes that could travel long distances across the ocean, allowing them to settle New Guinea and nearby islands. In time, settlers reached other remote islands, such as Fiji, Tonga, and Hawaii.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Where did the Maori people originate from? A.Polynesia B.New Zealand C.Australia D.Tonga
Section 1 The European Era Europeans explored and later settled in Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) From the 1500s to the 1800s, Europeans from various countries explored the South Pacific region. Between 1768 and 1779, British Captain James Cook claimed eastern Australia for Great Britain. Soon after, Europeans began acquiring different areas as colonies.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) When Cook landed in Australia, about 300,000 Aborigines lived there, but the British viewed the continent as uninhabited. The first British colony was for convicts from overcrowded British prisons. Once these convicts had served their sentences, most stayed in the new land.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) By the mid-1800s, the British government stopped sending convicts to Australia, but many free British settlers began migrating there, hoping to make a living or grow wealthy. By 1861, the European population had passed 1 million.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) Conditions in Australia were perfect for raising sheep that produced a fine wool, and exports of wool became a major part of the economy. The discovery of gold beginning in 1851 led to a new rush of settlers and greatly increased Australia’s population.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) The British government divided Australia into five separate colonies, each with its own legislature that made laws for the people within its boundaries. Australian colonies allowed all men to vote, which, along with the right to local self-government, led to a democratic government for all of Australia.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) The first European settlers in New Zealand may have been shipwrecked sailors and escaped Australian convicts. In time, Australians set up small whaling settlements along the coasts.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) British settlers arrived in New Zealand in the 1820s and 1830s. The Maori were able to hold off the newcomers until European diseases took a heavy toll. By 1840, the Maori population had been cut in half, to 100,000.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) Also in 1840, Maori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, agreeing to accept British rule in return for the right to keep their land. More British settlers moved onto Maori land, however, and war broke out in the 1860s. The Maori lost the war and much of their land.
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) As a global trade grew, Western countries saw the Pacific Islands as prime locations for trading posts and refueling stations for ships. France, Britain, Germany, and the United States took over various Pacific Islands as colonies. History at a Glance
Section 1 The European Era (cont.) Foreign control greatly increased trade and missionary activity. Over time, many Pacific Islanders converted to Christianity and accepted some Western ways. The spread of Western diseases, however, continued to reduce populations of the Pacific Islands.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Why did the British government initially establish a colony in Australia? A.To increase trade B.To convert the natives to Christianity C.To increase wealth D.To reduce overcrowding in British prisons
Section 1 Independent Nations Australia, New Zealand, and many islands in Oceania gained independence in the 1900s.
Section 1 Independent Nations (cont.) During the early 1900s, the British colonies of Australia and New Zealand became independent countries. By 2000, most of the other Pacific Islands gained their independence.
Section 1 Independent Nations (cont.) In 1901 the Australian colonies became an independent country known as the Commonwealth of Australia. New Zealand gained independence in 1907. Oceania: Colonial Powers and Independence
Section 1 Independent Nations (cont.) In 1893 New Zealand became the first country in the world to give women the right to vote. Australia followed in 1902. New Zealand also was among the first countries to provide government help to the elderly, the sick, and the jobless.
Section 1 Independent Nations (cont.) Aborigines in Australia and the Maori in New Zealand have suffered discrimination, and, until the 1970s, Australia and New Zealand had laws that banned or limited certain immigrants, especially Asians.
Section 1 Independent Nations (cont.) After World War I, Germany’s Pacific colonies came under Japan’s rule. Then, in December 1941, Japan attacked the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, bringing the United States into World War II.
Section 1 Independent Nations (cont.) After Japan’s defeat, Japan’s territories were turned over to the United States as trust territories, or areas temporarily placed under the control of another country. trust territories
Section 1 Independent Nations (cont.) Since the 1960s, most Pacific trust territories and colonies have become independent. Some areas such as Fiji and the Solomon Islands have been torn by ethnic conflict since gaining their independence.
Section 1 Independent Nations (cont.) During the 1900s, several countries claimed land in Antarctica. But in 1961, many countries signed the Antarctic Treaty, agreeing to share the continent for peaceful scientific research.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Which was the first country in the world to give women the right to vote? A.Australia B.New Zealand C.Oceania D.Antarctica
Section 2-Main Idea Culture groups shape human systems.
Section 2-Key Terms Content Vocabulary bush station pidgin languagepidgin language action song fale poi Academic Vocabulary sustain integral generation
Section 2-Picture This It is so hot on an Australian beach, you could fry an egg! Well, a fiberglass egg, that is. The artist who created this sculpture was inspired by people who lounge on Australian beaches, hoping for a bronze tan. The sculpture is part of a popular event in Sydney that celebrates the summer lifestyles of Australians. Sculptors from around the world, as well as from Australia, contribute more than 100 works of art to the beach display. Other sculptures have included a pair of oversized sunglasses. Read this section to learn more about the culture and lifestyles of people living in Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania.
A.A B.B Section 2-Polling Question Have you ever traveled a great distance without seeing any sign of life? A.Yes B.No
Section 2 The formal name for the pidgin language spoken in Papua New Guinea is Tok Pisin. The language evolved from the interaction of the early European explorers and settlers and the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands. In Tok Pisin, a bookstore is a buksop, a cookie is a switbiskit, sneakers are su gumi, and soccer is soka.
Section 2 The People The people of this region have varied ethnic backgrounds.
Section 2 The People (cont.) Much of the region of Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica is too dry, icy, or remote to sustain human settlement. The population that is here, though, comes from diverse ethnic backgrounds.
Section 2 The People (cont.) Australia is the region’s most populous country, with more than 20 million people. New Zealand has about 4 million people. The population growth rate in both countries has slowed in recent years because of low birthrates, but immigration has increased.
Section 2 The People (cont.) Population density differs throughout Australia and New Zealand. Few Australians live in the dry plateaus and deserts of the outback. Most prefer the mild climate, fertile soil, and access to the ocean of the coastal areas. Most of New Zealand’s people live along coasts rather than in the rugged inland areas.
Section 2 The People (cont.) On the other islands of Oceania, the overall number of people is growing rapidly because these islands have relatively young populations. Oceania’s most populous country is Papua New Guinea, with about 5.9 million people.
Section 2 The People (cont.) Because many Pacific islands are small in land area, overcrowding is a problem, and some Pacific Islanders have begun migrating to other parts of the world.
Section 2 The People (cont.) Antarctica’s forbidding icy landscape and polar climate do not support permanent human settlement. Research scientists and tourists make short-term visits.
Section 2 The People (cont.) More than 85 percent of the people in Australia and New Zealand live in coastal urban areas, such as Sydney and Melbourne in Australia and Wellington and Auckland in New Zealand. The largest urban area of Papua New Guinea is Port Moresby, the capital. Most people in the Pacific Islands live in small rural villages.
Section 2 The People (cont.) A small number of Australians live in rural areas known as the bush.bush Some people who live in the bush work on cattle and sheep ranches, or stations.stations Others farm or work in mining camps.
Section 2 The People (cont.) English is Australia’s official language, but many Aboriginal languages are still spoken. Nearly all New Zealanders speak English, although Maori is recognized as a second official language.
Section 2 The People (cont.) Altogether, the diverse peoples of Oceania speak more than 1,200 languages—as many as 700 languages in Papua New Guinea alone. Many Papuans speak a pidgin language formed by combining parts of several different languages.pidgin language
Section 2 The People (cont.) Most islands in Oceania also have small populations of European descent. The largest of the groups is in French Polynesia, where Europeans make up more than one-third of the population.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 Which is NOT one of the three large ethnic groups of Oceania? A.Maori B.Melanesians C.Micronesians D.Polynesians
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life Lifestyles in Australia and Oceania primarily reflect European and Pacific cultures.
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) Christianity, brought by Europeans during the 1700s and 1800s, is the major religion in Australia and Oceania today, although traditional religions are still practiced in some areas.
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) The Aborigines of Australia believe in Dreamtime, the time long ago when they say wandering spirits created the world. They also believe that all natural things— rocks, trees, plants, animals, and humans—have a spirit and are related to one another.
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) The Aborigines created paintings on rocks to tell about the relationship of humans to nature. Australian painters of European descent looked to the Australian landscape for inspiration. The country’s writers and filmmakers have local themes in many of their works.
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) New Zealand’s Maori artisans are skilled in canoe making, weaving, and wood carving. Although the Maori language is now written, storytellers still pass on the history and myths of long ago. The Maori also use songs and chants to tell stories. In the 1900s, they developed action songs, which blend traditional dance with modern music. action songs
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) The spirited and graceful dances of Oceania are an integral part of important events. Pacific Islanders also use storytelling to pass on knowledge of their cultures. The stories often are told through the movements of dancers.
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) People with European backgrounds typically live in nuclear families. Aborigines, Maori, and Pacific Islanders emphasize the extended family. Maori households commonly include relatives from three or four generations. Males head the family in most societies, but women also head Maori families and some island groups.
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) One-floor brick or wood houses with tiled roofs are common in Australia. Many New Zealanders live in timber houses with porches or in stone cottages. City residents in both countries typically live in Western-style apartments or small houses.
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) Traditional homes in Oceania have thatched or tin roofs, held up by posts. Many homes, like the Samoan fale, have open sides that allow cooling ocean breezes to circulate. Blinds made of coconut palm leaves are lowered for privacy.fale
Section 2 Culture and Daily Life (cont.) Typical meals in Australia and New Zealand include lamb, beef, fish, or pork served with vegetables, bread, and fruit. People in Oceania eat a variety of foods including fish, pork, yams, taro, breadfruit, and fruit. Taro is a plant that grows a tuber, or fleshy bulb, that Pacific Islanders mash into a paste called poi.poi
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 What are an integral part of important events in the Oceania culture? A.Action songs B.Poi C.Dances D.Fale
VS 1 First Settlers Hunters from Southeast Asia settled Australia about 40,000 years ago. Pacific Islanders developed sailing skills that helped them travel to faraway islands. The Aborigines of Australia and the Maori of New Zealand developed complex cultures.
VS 2 The European Era Europeans explored and settled Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania from the 1500s to the 1800s. Disease and warfare caused Aborigine and Maori populations to decline. Western nations colonized Pacific Ocean islands.
VS 3 Independent Nations Australia and New Zealand gained independence in the early 1900s. Australia and New Zealand are parliamentary democracies. Most territories in Oceania gained independence after World War II. A number of countries signed an agreement to share Antarctica for scientific research.
VS 4 People Most people in Australia and New Zealand live in urban areas. Oceania has few large urban areas; most people live in small villages. Since World War II, the populations of Australia and New Zealand have become more ethnically diverse. Populations in Oceania are growing faster than in Australia and New Zealand.
VS 4 Culture Western culture has influenced the religion and art of the region. Homes, clothing, and activities reflect the region’s generally pleasant climate. Modern and traditional ways influence daily life in Australia and Oceania.
Vocab13 generation groups of people about the same age
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