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Aquatic Ecology Oceans, Estuaries and Wetlands, and Freshwater.

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Presentation on theme: "Aquatic Ecology Oceans, Estuaries and Wetlands, and Freshwater."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aquatic Ecology Oceans, Estuaries and Wetlands, and Freshwater

2 Oceans make up 71% of Earth’s Surface Seventy-one percent of the Earth's surface is ocean. The area of the earth the ocean covers (with the continents out of the way) The area of the earth the ocean covers (with the continents out of the way)

3 Atlantic

4 Pacific

5 Indian

6 Arctic

7 Make-up of the ocean

8 Ocean Currents

9 Gulf Stream

10 Waves

11 Tides

12 Coral Reefs An inch of coral reef takes 100 years to grow! An inch of coral reef takes 100 years to grow!

13 Types of Reefs

14 Fringing Reef Fringe reefs extend from the island with no water separating reef from land Fringe reefs extend from the island with no water separating reef from land Polynesian Island of Moorea

15 Barrier Reef Great Barrier Reef, Australia

16 Atoll

17 Impacts on Reefs Threats to Coral Reefs Threats to Coral Reefs Human ContactTouching Reefs, even slightly, can harm them. Boats and dropped anchors can cause severe damage to these fragile ecosystems. Frequent human contact kills the reefs over time. Runoff WaterSilt from eroded soil in runoff water can block sunlight. Without sunlight, photosynthesis does not occur and reefs gradually die. SewageUntreated or improperly treated sewage promotes the growth of algae, which harms coral reefs. Cyanide FishingSome fishermen stun fish by squirting cyanide, a very toxic poison, into reef areas where fish seek refuge. The poison does not kill, but disorients the fish in the coral where they hide. The fisherman then rip apart the reefs with crowbars to capture the fish. In addition, cyanide kills coral polyps and the symbiotic algae and other small organisms necessary for healthy reefs. Cyanide fishing is common in the South Pacific and Southeast Asia. Human ContactTouching Reefs, even slightly, can harm them. Boats and dropped anchors can cause severe damage to these fragile ecosystems. Frequent human contact kills the reefs over time. Runoff WaterSilt from eroded soil in runoff water can block sunlight. Without sunlight, photosynthesis does not occur and reefs gradually die. SewageUntreated or improperly treated sewage promotes the growth of algae, which harms coral reefs. Cyanide FishingSome fishermen stun fish by squirting cyanide, a very toxic poison, into reef areas where fish seek refuge. The poison does not kill, but disorients the fish in the coral where they hide. The fisherman then rip apart the reefs with crowbars to capture the fish. In addition, cyanide kills coral polyps and the symbiotic algae and other small organisms necessary for healthy reefs. Cyanide fishing is common in the South Pacific and Southeast Asia. Fertilizers & PollutionFertilizer runoff, pesticides and other chemicals can poison reefs. Blast FishingShock waves from blast fishing can destroy coral reefs. Fertilizers & PollutionFertilizer runoff, pesticides and other chemicals can poison reefs. Blast FishingShock waves from blast fishing can destroy coral reefs.

18 Barrier Islands Found in the southern coastal areas from the carolinas, florida, to texas Found in the southern coastal areas from the carolinas, florida, to texas Dunes

19 Shoreline

20 Rocky shores Found in pacific northwest and Maine Found in pacific northwest and Maine Tidal pool

21 Estuaries and Wetlands

22 /gmpo/gcnep.html

23

24 Estuaries Where salt water meets fresh Where salt water meets fresh Many, like Galveston, protected by the EPA Many, like Galveston, protected by the EPA Filters water Filters water Nutrients Nutrients 22 of 32 largest 22 of 32 largest cities nearby Vital for fish Vital for fish Trap sediment Trap sediment

25 Coastal Wetlands Land covered by standing water most of the year Land covered by standing water most of the year Vegetated (marshes, swamps) or not (mud flats) Vegetated (marshes, swamps) or not (mud flats) Biodiversity Biodiversity Buffer between Buffer between land and sea >50% destroyed >50% destroyed since 1800

26 Salt Marsh Salt tolerant plants Salt tolerant plants Mostly grasses Mostly grasses Protected Protected

27 Mud flat Aka Tidal flats Aka Tidal flats Mud/clay/silt Mud/clay/silt Exposed 2x/day Exposed 2x/day Inhabitants Inhabitantsburrow Migratory birds Migratory birds

28 Mangrove Swamps Salt tolerant trees and shrubs Salt tolerant trees and shrubs Traps silt and sediment Traps silt and sediment Protects inland Protects inland Unique habitat Unique habitat

29 Freshwater

30 Lakes Salt examples - Salt Lake, Aral Sea, Dead Sea Salt examples - Salt Lake, Aral Sea, Dead Sea Most are fresh water Most are fresh water Most are in the Northern Hemisphere Most are in the Northern Hemisphere Most have water in and out Most have water in and out Natural or Natural orman-made Some under- Some under- ground or ice

31 Glaciation Grind out softer land Grind out softer land Often in a row Often in a row Higher latitudes Higher latitudes Great Lakes Great Lakes

32 Volcano Lakes Lake Tahoe Crater Lake, Oregon Heaven Lake, North Korea Mount Katmai, Alaska

33 Man-made lakes Water storage Water storage Energy production Energy production Flood control Flood control Recreation Recreation Flooding of upstream habitat Flooding of upstream habitat Loss of downstream habitat Loss of downstream habitat Colorado river Colorado river Three Gorges Three Gorges Hoover dam

34 Lake Houston

35 Freshwater Wetlands Land covered with Land covered with water most/all year Often connected to Often connected to other water systems Purify and filter water Purify and filter water

36 Marsh Mostly covered with grasses, cattails, reeds Mostly covered with grasses, cattails, reeds Lankford Lankford Little open water Little open water Will o’ the Wisps Will o’ the Wisps Aka Morass Aka Morass

37 Bog Brackish, standing water Brackish, standing water Source of peat moss Source of peat moss Acidic Acidic Aka quagmire Aka quagmire Tanned mummies Tanned mummies No/little inflowing water No/little inflowing water Bog in Alaskan Tundra

38 Rivers

39 Rivers Move slow or fast Move slow or fast Watershed Watershed Deliver Deliverwater Remove Removewaste

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