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Irish Independence.

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1 Irish Independence



4 Background-Pre WWI Irish Party under leadership of John Redmond wants home rule through constitutional means 1909: Liberal government headed by British P.M. Asquith needs support of the Irish Party in Parliament to keep his government in power; agree to help in exchange for home rule bill 1912—Home Rule Act passed by the House of Commons; becomes law on September 15, 1914, but temporarily put on hold because of WWI


6 During the War Irish unionists in Northern Ireland under the leadership of Sir Edward Carson vow to fight against Home Rule 1913 establish Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), a quasi-army with over 100,000 “enlisted” men—begin arming heavily

7 Irish Volunteers (nationalist/home rule) form in response to UVF
2 sides theoretically put aside differences for the sake of the war effort Over 200,000 Irishmen fight in WWI; 60,000 never returned

8 The Easter Rising, 1916 Most people in Ireland support either home rule or union; idea of republic has very little public support Revolutionary Irish Republican Brotherhood doesn’t let that stop them—they plan the Easter Rising for Easter Monday, 1916 The British know something is stirring; at the last minute, the leadership of the IRB publicly cancels the rising, but the military committee decides to go ahead with it anyway

9 Take over various building in Dublin, such as the General Post Office, College of Surgeon, Four Courts Radio Archives

10 Rebels, who now call themselves the Irish Republican Army, surrender on Saturday
3,000 casualties; public sentiment is initially supportive of government’s response

11 The Government’s Reaction
General Sir John Maxwell is in charge of British troops in Ireland: I am going to ensure that there will be no treason whispered here for a hundred years 121 people were tried by the courts martial; 90 were sentenced to death; 16 executions carried out over the course of a week 1,900 arrested and jailed in Britain without trial

12 Brutal executions stun the public
Easter, 1916 (WB Yeats, 4th stanza) Too long a sacrifice Can make a stone of the heart. O when may it suffice? That is Heaven's part, our part To murmur name upon name, As a mother names her child When sleep at last has come On limbs that had run wild. What is it but nightfall? No, no, not night but death; Was it needless death after all? For England may keep faith For all that is done and said. We know their dream; enough To know they dreamed and are dead; And what if excess of love Bewildered them till they died? I write it out in a verse - MacDonagh and MacBride And Connolly and Pearse Now and in time to be, Wherever green is worn, Are changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born. Brutal executions stun the public Public opinion begins to shift dramatically in support of the rebels; their deaths ultimately give strength to their movement and they are popularly seen as martyrs

13 So, who’s left standing? Eamon DeValera Leader of Sinn Fein
Political/public face of movement Michael Collins Clandestine force behind the republican movement Planned and prepared for violent confrontation with UK military and police forces

14 The Aftermath of WWI Trying to gain U.S. support in WWI, Asquith tries to implement home rule bill before war’s end; Redmond refuses because bill allows for Ulster (N. Ireland) to opt out Sinn Fein (“We Ourselves”) rises to dominant party status on republican platform Dec. 1918: 73 of 105 Irish MP’s are Sinn Fein– refuse to take their seats in parliament

15 “The Troubles” Michael Collins organizes an IRA squad of hand-picked gunman entrusted with the killing of police agents, informers, and detectives January 1919: “The Troubles” begin November 1919: “Bloody Sunday” Collins’s squad murders 12 undercover British intelligence officers In response, British troops fire on crowd at all-Ireland football match

16 Troubles last until truce is called between IRA and England’s P. M
Troubles last until truce is called between IRA and England’s P. M. Lloyd George’s government in July 1921 Over 1,500 people killed Treaty offer from DLG contains partition of Ireland, requires oath of allegiance to Crown Lloyd George forces them to sign by saying that he will declare war on Ireland in 3 days if they don’t David Lloyd George Collins: Think, what have I got for Ireland? Something she has wanted these past seven hundred years. Will anyone be satisfied at the bargain? Will anyone? I tell you this: early this morning I signed my death warrant.

17 The Anglo-Irish Treaty
Most nationalist groups in IRE split over the treaty Ultimately ratified in the Dail (unrecognized political body) by a narrow margin in January 1922 DeValera is against ratification; resigns as head of the dail Most Irishmen approve of the treaty as an end to the bloodshed; see the establishment of the Irish Free State as a stepping stone to republic

18 The Civil War IRA sees treaty as betrayal of republican ideals
John Lynch becomes new head of the IRA Extremist splinter group of IRA takes over Four Courts in Dublin; Collins has to use National Army to attack them in June 1922 Four Courts under fire of National Army

19 August 22, 1922: Collins tries to meet with Lynch and put an end to fighting, but he’s ambushed and assassinated en route Half a million people lined the streets for the funeral of Michael Collins

20 Essentially two competing governing bodies in Ireland
Under the terms of the treaty, Parliament established for Irish Free State Sinn Fein was (and is) the political arm of the IRA; they continue to support the dail, of which they make DeValera the President Essentially two competing governing bodies in Ireland By April 1923, the IRA has been defeated because has little support outside own ranks Free State continues to arrest those suspected of IRA membership– over 11,000 jailed Pro-treaty troops in Dublin, 1922

21 1926 DeValera splits with Sinn Fein and agrees to accept a seat in Parliament
1932 his Fianna Fail party assumes control of the government for the first time 1937 DeValera introduces a new constitution, which is still in effect today. Established Eire or Ireland as a republic; claims Northern Ireland as rightful part of territory, but pending reunification laws only apply in the south






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