Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Chapter.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Chapter 6 Policing: Issues and Challenges

2 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Learning Objectives Describe the police working personality List and describe the different types of police corruption Explain the dangers of police work Describe terrorism’s impact on police agencies Describe civil liability issues associated with policing

3 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Learning Objectives Describe efforts to enhance police professionalism Discuss ethnic and gender diversity in policing Describe the nature and extent of private protective services Explain the relationship between private security and public policing

4 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Issues in Policing A number of issues hold special interest for today’s police administrators and officers. –On-the-job dangers –Officer stress –Use of deadly force Hear author discuss the chapter.

5 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Police Personality and Culture Police working personality refers to: Characteristics of the police personality often extend to the personal lives of law enforcement personnel. All aspects of the traditional values and patterns of behavior evidenced by police officers who have been effectively socialized into the police culture.

6 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Police Personality Authoritarian Hostile Efficient Suspicious Loyal Prejudiced Insecure Secret Dogmatic Honorable Conservative Cynical Individualistic Web Extra 6-1

7 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Multiculturalism and Diversity Cultural awareness training helps to identify prejudices. Four stages: –Clarifying the relationship between cultural awareness and police professionalism –Recognizing personal prejudices –Acquiring sensitivity to police–community relations –Developing interpersonal relations skills

8 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Corruption Police corruption refers to: Knapp Commission: –A committee that investigated police corruption in New York City in the early 1970s. Web Extra 6-2 The abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain.

9 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Corruption Grass eaters: –The most common form of police corruption. –Illegitimate activity that occurs from time to time in the normal course of police work. Small bribes or receiving minor services Meat eaters: –A much more serious form of corruption involving the active seeking of illicit money-making opportunities by officers. Solicit bribes through threats or intimidation

10 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Corruption Violent crimes

11 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Money: The Root of Police Evil? The police personality provides fertile ground for the growth of corrupt practices. Police “cynicism” develops out of continued association with criminals and problem-laden people. Low pay may be a critical ingredient of the corruption mix. Working hand in hand with monetary pressures toward corruption are the moral dilemmas.

12 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Building Police Integrity Ethics training is part of a “reframing” strategy that emphasizes integrity. –Ethics training –Research Internal affairs refers to: Library Extra 6-1 The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoing involving members of the department.

13 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Drug Testing of Police Employees Potential for police corruption created by illicit drugs has become a focus. –Testing all applicants and recruits for drug use –Testing current employees With performance difficulties Who use excessive force or suffer injury Assigned to special “high risk” areas Web Extra 6-3 Library Extras 6-2 and 6-3Library Extras

14 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Dangers of Police Work Violence in the line of duty –Web Extra 6-4Web Extra 6-4 Risk of disease and infected evidence –Library Extra 6-4Library Extra 6-4 Stress and fatigue –Library Extra 6-5Library Extra 6-5

15 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ U.S. Law Enforcement Officers Killed in the Line of Duty, 2003

16 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Terrorism’s Impact on American Policing Strengthening liaisons with federal, state, and local agencies Refining training, emergency, and counterterrorism response plans Increasing patrols and shoring up barriers, landmarks, and so on Employing new technologies Library Extra 6-6

17 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Police Civil Liability Failure to protect property in police custody Negligence in the care of suspects in police custody Failure to render proper emergency medical assistance Failure to prevent a foreseeable crime Failure to aid private citizens Lack of due regard for the safety of others

18 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Police Civil Liability False arrest False imprisonment Inappropriate use of deadly force Unnecessary assault or battery Malicious prosecution Violations of constitutional rights Patterns of unfair and inequitable treatment Racial profiling

19 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Federal Lawsuits 1983 lawsuit refers to: Bivens action refers to: A civil suit brought under Title 42, Section 1983, of the U.S. Code against anyone who denies others their constitutional right to life, liberty, or property without due process of law. A civil suit, based on the case of Bivens v. Six Unknown Federal Agents, brought against federal government officials for denying the constitutional rights of others.

20 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Racial Profiling and Biased Policing Civil liability refers to: Racial profiling refers to: Library Extras 6-7 and 6-8Library Extras Potential responsibility for payment of damages or other court-ordered enforcement as a result of a ruling in a lawsuit. “Any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin…”

21 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Racial Biased Policing Most police officers share an intolerance for racially biased policing. In learning and practicing the job, officers quickly develop a sense for what is normal and expected, and for what is not. Yet, young, black males are more likely than whites to be stopped. Recommendation –Supervisors should monitor activity reports for evidence of improper practices and patterns. Library Extra 6-9

22 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Police Use of Force Police use of force refers to: Excessive force refers to: The use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public. The application of an amount or frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a willing or unwilling subject.

23 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Police Use of Force Problem police officer refers to: Library Extras 6-10a, 6-10b, and 6-11Library Extras 6-10a6-10b6-11 A law enforcement officer who exhibits problem behavior, as indicated by high rates of citizen complaints and use-of-force incidents and by other evidence.

24 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Citizens Reports of Type of Force Used by Police Officers During Adult Custodial Arrests

25 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Deadly Force Deadly force refers to: Elements of federal deadly force policy: Force likely to cause death or great bodily harm. – Defense of life– Warning shots – Fleeing subject– Vehicles – Verbal warnings

26 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Less-Lethal Weapons Less-lethal weapons refers to: A weapon that is designed to disable, capture, or immobilize – but not kill – a suspect. – Stun guns– Beanbag projectiles – Tasers– Pepper spray – Rubber bullets– Snare nets

27 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Professionalism and Ethics Police professionalism refers to: Police ethics refers to: Web Extra 6-5 The increasing formalization of police work and the accompanying rise in public acceptance of the police. The special responsibility to adhere to moral duty and obligation that is inherent in police work.

28 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Education and Training Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) program refers to: All states set such standards, although not all use the term POST. Web Extra 6-6 Library Extra 6-12 The official program of a state or legislative jurisdiction that sets standards for the training of law enforcement officers.

29 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Education and Training Police Executive Research Forum stressed the need for educated police officers. – Better written reports– Greater initiative – Fewer citizen complaints– Wiser use of discretion – Enhanced communication– Fewer disciplinary problems – More effective job – performance – Heightened sensitivity to – racial and ethnic issues

30 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Multiculturalism and Diversity Investigating crime in a multicultural setting –Be patient when speaking with someone with a language barrier. –Be careful with your choice of words. –Allow extra time for investigation. –Be sure that any interpreter is fully qualified and experienced. –Be candid about your ability to speak or understand a language. –Never assume that someone is less intelligent because of a language barrier. Web Extra 6-7

31 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Policing Women currently represent 13% of all sworn officers. –4.9% are women of color –Between 1990−2000, women’s ranks increased from 9% to 13% –Women hold 7.3% of sworn top command law enforcement positions –Women will not achieve equal representation within 70 years Consent decrees mandating the hiring and promotion of women and minorities are the significant factor in women’s gains.

32 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Full-Time Sworn Law Enforcement Officers by Gender, 1972−2000

33 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Women as Effective Police Officers Research on female police officers –Extremely devoted to their work –See themselves as women first and then police officers –Are more satisfied when working in nonuniformed categories Two groups of female officers –Those who feel themselves to be well integrated and confident. –Those who experience strain and on-the-job isolation. Library Extra 6-13

34 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Increasing the Number of Minorities and Women in Police Work Police Foundation recommendations –Involve underrepresented groups in affirmative action and long-term planning programs –Encourage the development of an open system of promotions for women and racial and ethnic minorities –Use periodic audits to ensure that female officers are not being underutilized

35 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Private Protective Services Private protective services refers to: In most countries, private police outnumber public police. –People spend more time in places where private police govern. Reconstruction of policing is occurring worldwide. Library Extra 6-14 Independent or proprietary commercial organizations that provide protective services to employers on a contractual basis.

36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Private Protective Services Major reasons for the quick growth of the American proprietary security sector are: –An increase in crimes in the workplace. –An increase in fear of crime and terrorism. –The fiscal crises of the states, which have limited public protection. –An increased public and business awareness and use of more cost-effective private security products and services.

37 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Integrating Public and Private Security To maximize the crime-fighting potential: –Resources should be brought to bear in cooperative, community-based crime prevention and awareness programs. –Assessment should be made of: The basic police services the public is willing to support financially. The types of police services most acceptable to transfer to the private sector. Which services might be performed for a lower unit cost by the private sector.

38 CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Integrating Public and Private Security To maximize the crime-fighting potential: –With special police powers, security personnel could resolve many or most criminal incidents prior to police involvement. –Law enforcement agencies should be included in the crisis-management planning of private organizations. –States should allow private security firms access to criminal history records. –Research needs to be conducted. –A federal tax credit for security expenditures can reduce police expenditures.


Download ppt "CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Brief Introduction, 6/E by Frank Schmalleger ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Chapter."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google