Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Chapter Preview 11.1 Biomes 11.2 Aquatic Ecosystems"— Presentation transcript:
1Table of Contents Chapter Preview 11.1 Biomes 11.2 Aquatic Ecosystems 11.3 Forests and Fisheries11.4 Biodiversity
2Chapter Preview Questions 1. An organism obtains food, water, shelter, and other things it needs to live, grow, and reproduce froma. producers.b. the atmosphere.c. abiotic factors.d. its environment.
3Chapter Preview Questions 1. An organism obtains food, water, shelter, and other things it needs to live, grow, and reproduce froma. producers.b. the atmosphere.c. abiotic factors.d. its environment.
4Chapter Preview Questions 2. The living parts of an organism’s habitat are calleda. herbivores.b. biotic factors.c. predators.d. ecosystems.
5Chapter Preview Questions 2. The living parts of an organism’s habitat are calleda. herbivores.b. biotic factors.c. predators.d. ecosystems.
6Chapter Preview Questions 3. Abiotic factors of an organism’s habitat includea. oxygen and predators.b. sunlight and producers.c. oxygen and food.d. water and oxygen.
7Chapter Preview Questions 3. Abiotic factors of an organism’s habitat includea. oxygen and predators.b. sunlight and producers.c. oxygen and food.d. water and oxygen.
8Chapter Preview Questions 4. The smallest level of organization in an ecosystem is aa. single organism.b. species.c. cell.d. consumer.
9Chapter Preview Questions 4. The smallest level of organization in an ecosystem is aa. single organism.b. species.c. cell.d. consumer.
10What defines the ecological roles and adaptations of the organisms found in different biomes?Study the two photographs below. The plant on the left grows in South Africa. The plant on the right grows in Australia. How are the two plants similar? How are they different? Based on the characteristics of the plants, predict the kind of environment in which each one grows.
11High-Use Academic Words DefinitionExample SentenceThe sun is our main source of energy.sourcen. The beginning; the origin
12High-Use Academic Words DefinitionExample SentenceCoal and oil are resources that we depend on.n. A material or living thingthat people can useresource
13High-Use Academic Words DefinitionExample SentenceFood and water arenecessary to sustain humans.sustainv. To keep up; to maintain
14High-Use Academic Words DefinitionExample SentenceEach type of bird is distinct.distinctadj. Different; not the same
15Apply It!Choose the word from the table that best completes the sentence.1. Forests are a naturalresource2. Trees in the rain forest form several layers.distinct3. We can our forests by planting new trees to replace thosethat we cut down.sustain4. Insects are a of food for reptiles, birds, and mammals.source
17Warm-UpIf deserts and tundras receive similar amounts of rainfall, why are these two biomes so different?
18What are the six major biomes on Earth and briefly describe one? Warm-UpWhat are the six major biomes on Earth and briefly describe one?
19Warm-UpList two ways in which the three forest biomes (rain forests, deciduous forests, and boreal forests) are alike? List two ways in which they are different?
20Section 1: BiomesWhat factors determine the type of biome found in an area?What are the six major biomes?
21Desert BiomesOrganisms that live in a desert biome must be adapted to the lack of rain and extreme temperatures.
22Rain Forest BiomesTropical rain forests contain many species of plants and animals. Temperate rain forests have a moist, mild climate.
23Grassland BiomesA grassland is an area that is populated mostly by grasses and other non-woody plants.
24Deciduous Forest Biomes Many of the trees in the deciduous forest are deciduous trees, which shed their leaves and grow new ones each year. A deciduous forest receives at least 50 centimeters of precipitation each year. Temperatures vary greatly through the year.
25Boreal Forest BiomesMost of the trees in the boreal forest are coniferous trees, trees that produce their seeds in cones and have leaves shaped like needles. Winters in the boreal forest are cold and very snowy, but summers are warm and rainy enough to melt all the snow.
26TundraThe tundra is an extremely cold and dry biome. Most of the soil in the tundra is permafrost, which is frozen all year.
27Mountains and IceSome areas of land are not part of any major biome. These areas include mountain ranges and land that is covered with thick sheets of ice.
28Earth’s Biomes Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about Earth’s biomes.
29Climate Differences on Mountains As you move up a tall mountain, you pass through as series of climate zones. Each zone has a different community of plants.
31Why is sunlight important in aquatic ecosystem? Warm-UpWhy is sunlight important in aquatic ecosystem?
32Warm-UpWhich zone probably has the greatest variety of living things? How is variety related to water depth?
33Warm-UpA great blue whale is a filter feeder that eats mostly plankton. Is a blue whale a primary consumer, a secondary consumer, or a top-level consumer? Explain.
34Section 2: Aquatic Ecosystems What abiotic factors influence aquatic ecosystems?What are the major types of aquatic ecosystems?What are the ecological roles of organisms in aquatic food webs?
35Freshwater Ecosystems StreamsAnimals must adapt to currentsFish have streamline bodiesInsects have hooks or suckers to cling to rocksFew plants can grow here, consumers rely on fallen tree leaves or seeds for foodRiversCurrents are slower, warmer, and have less oxygenPlants take root, provide food & habitats
36Freshwater Ecosystems Ponds & LakesWater is standing or stillLakes usually larger & deeperPonds get more sunlight throughout, grow more plantsAlgae major producerDragonflies, turtles, snails, & frogs biotic inhabitantsSunfish live near water surface & feed on insects & algaeCatfish live near bottomBacteria & other decomposers feed on organism remains
37Marine EcosystemsThe ocean is home to a number of different ecosystems. Factors such as water temperature and the amount of sunlight determine what types of organisms can live in each zone.
38Marine EcosystemsThe ocean is home to a number of different ecosystems. Factors such as water temperature and the amount of sunlight determine what types of organisms can live in each zone.
39Ocean Food WebThis ocean food web includes typical organisms found in the Arctic Ocean. The arrows indicate what each organism eats.
40Ocean Food Web Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about the ocean food web.
41Links on Aquatic Ecosystems Click the SciLinks button for links on aquatic ecosystems.
43Why are forests considered renewable resources? Warm-UpWhy are forests considered renewable resources?
44Warm-UpHow does the clear-cutting logging method differ from selective cutting?
45Warm-UpHow can people manage fisheries for a sustainable yield?
46Section 3: Forests and Fisheries How can forests be managed as renewable resources?How can fisheries be managed for a sustainable yield?
47Managing ForestsClear-cutting involves cutting down all the trees in an area at once. Selective cutting involves cutting down only some trees.
48Managing Fisheries Fishing Limits Laws that ban certain fishing, limit the number of fish or size to be caughtLaws or regulations help young fish populations regain healthy numbersFishing MethodsLaws or regulations tell fishing crews to use nets with larger mesh sizes to allow smaller fish to remain free & growOutlaw poising fish with cyanide & using explosives to stun fish
49Logging Methods Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about logging methods.
54Diversity of SpeciesMore than 1.5 million species have been identified so far. People value wildlife and ecosystems for their beauty and as a source of recreation. In addition, biodiversity has both economic value and ecological within an ecosystem.
55Factors Affecting Biodiversity Factors that affect biodiversity in an ecosystem include area, climate, and diversity of niches.
56California Peregrine Falcon Recovery The peregrine falcon, the world’s fastest bird of prey, was nearly extinct in the United States in The pesticide DDT was weakening peregrine eggshells, so eggs rarely hatched. In 1972, the United States banned DDT. Use the graph to answer questions about the peregrine population in California.
57California Peregrine Falcon Recovery Reading Graphs:What variable is plotted on the x-axis? What variable is plotted on the y-axis?Time interval in years is on the x-axis. Number of breeding pairs of peregrine falcons is on the y-axis.
58California Peregrine Falcon Recovery Interpreting Data:How did California’s peregrine population change from 1976 to 1998?The population grew steadily, except for a brief drop around 1980, until 1994, when the number of breeding pairs remained the same for the four following years.
59California Peregrine Falcon Recovery Inferring:Why do you think the peregrine population grew fairly slowly at first?There were only a few breeding pairs at first, and they could produce only a few young. These, in turn, had to grow up before they had a chance to breed. As more pairs grew to breeding age, more and more young could be produced.
60California Peregrine Falcon Recovery Predicting:What might this graph have looked like if DDT had not been banned?The graph probably would have sloped downward from left to right, possibly reaching zero breeding pairs.
61Click the Planet Diary button for an activity about biodiversity. More on BiodiversityClick the Planet Diary button for an activity about biodiversity.