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Chapter 11 Living Resources Table of Contents Chapter Preview 11.1 Biomes 11.2 Aquatic Ecosystems 11.3 Forests and Fisheries 11.4 Biodiversity.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Living Resources Table of Contents Chapter Preview 11.1 Biomes 11.2 Aquatic Ecosystems 11.3 Forests and Fisheries 11.4 Biodiversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Living Resources Table of Contents Chapter Preview 11.1 Biomes 11.2 Aquatic Ecosystems 11.3 Forests and Fisheries 11.4 Biodiversity

2 Chapter 11 Living Resources Chapter Preview Questions 1. An organism obtains food, water, shelter, and other things it needs to live, grow, and reproduce from a. producers. b. the atmosphere. c. abiotic factors. d. its environment.

3 Chapter 11 Living Resources Chapter Preview Questions 1. An organism obtains food, water, shelter, and other things it needs to live, grow, and reproduce from a. producers. b. the atmosphere. c. abiotic factors. d. its environment.

4 Chapter 11 Living Resources Chapter Preview Questions 2. The living parts of an organism’s habitat are called a. herbivores. b. biotic factors. c. predators. d. ecosystems.

5 Chapter 11 Living Resources Chapter Preview Questions 2. The living parts of an organism’s habitat are called a. herbivores. b. biotic factors. c. predators. d. ecosystems.

6 Chapter 11 Living Resources Chapter Preview Questions 3. Abiotic factors of an organism’s habitat include a. oxygen and predators. b. sunlight and producers. c. oxygen and food. d. water and oxygen.

7 Chapter 11 Living Resources Chapter Preview Questions 3. Abiotic factors of an organism’s habitat include a. oxygen and predators. b. sunlight and producers. c. oxygen and food. d. water and oxygen.

8 Chapter 11 Living Resources Chapter Preview Questions 4. The smallest level of organization in an ecosystem is a a. single organism. b. species. c. cell. d. consumer.

9 Chapter 11 Living Resources Chapter Preview Questions 4. The smallest level of organization in an ecosystem is a a. single organism. b. species. c. cell. d. consumer.

10 Chapter 11 Living Resources Study the two photographs below. The plant on the left grows in South Africa. The plant on the right grows in Australia. How are the two plants similar? How are they different? Based on the characteristics of the plants, predict the kind of environment in which each one grows. What defines the ecological roles and adaptations of the organisms found in different biomes?

11 Chapter 11 Living Resources High-Use Academic Words WordDefinitionExample Sentence source n. The beginning; the origin The sun is our main source of energy.

12 Chapter 11 Living Resources High-Use Academic Words WordDefinitionExample Sentence resource n. A material or living thing that people can use Coal and oil are resources that we depend on.

13 Chapter 11 Living Resources High-Use Academic Words WordDefinitionExample Sentence sustain v. To keep up; to maintain Food and water are necessary to sustain humans.

14 Chapter 11 Living Resources High-Use Academic Words WordDefinitionExample Sentence distinct adj. Different; not the same Each type of bird is distinct.

15 Chapter 11 Living Resources Apply It! Choose the word from the table that best completes the sentence. 1. Forests are a natural. resource 2. Trees in the rain forest form several layers. distinct 3. We can our forests by planting new trees to replace those that we cut down. sustain 4. Insects are a of food for reptiles, birds, and mammals. source

16 Chapter 11 Living Resources End of Chapter Preview

17 Chapter 11 Living Resources If deserts and tundras receive similar amounts of rainfall, why are these two biomes so different?

18 Chapter 11 Living Resources What are the six major biomes on Earth and briefly describe one?

19 Chapter 11 Living Resources List two ways in which the three forest biomes (rain forests, deciduous forests, and boreal forests) are alike? List two ways in which they are different?

20 Chapter 11 Living Resources Section 1: Biomes What factors determine the type of biome found in an area? What are the six major biomes?

21 Chapter 11 Living Resources Desert Biomes desert Organisms that live in a desert biome must be adapted to the lack of rain and extreme temperatures.

22 Chapter 11 Living Resources Rain Forest Biomes Tropical rain forests Tropical rain forests contain many species of plants and animals. Temperate rain forests have a moist, mild climate.

23 Chapter 11 Living Resources Grassland Biomes grassland A grassland is an area that is populated mostly by grasses and other non-woody plants.

24 Chapter 11 Living Resources Deciduous Forest Biomes deciduous forest Many of the trees in the deciduous forest are deciduous trees, which shed their leaves and grow new ones each year. A deciduous forest receives at least 50 centimeters of precipitation each year. Temperatures vary greatly through the year.

25 Chapter 11 Living Resources Boreal Forest Biomes boreal forest Most of the trees in the boreal forest are coniferous trees, trees that produce their seeds in cones and have leaves shaped like needles. Winters in the boreal forest are cold and very snowy, but summers are warm and rainy enough to melt all the snow.

26 Chapter 11 Living Resources Tundra tundra The tundra is an extremely cold and dry biome. Most of the soil in the tundra is permafrost, which is frozen all year.

27 Chapter 11 Living Resources Mountains and Ice mountain ranges ice Some areas of land are not part of any major biome. These areas include mountain ranges and land that is covered with thick sheets of ice.

28 Chapter 11 Living Resources Earth’s Biomes Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about Earth’s biomes.

29 Chapter 11 Living Resources Climate Differences on Mountains As you move up a tall mountain, you pass through as series of climate zones. Each zone has a different community of plants.

30 Chapter 11 Living Resources End of Section: Biomes

31 Chapter 11 Living Resources Why is sunlight important in aquatic ecosystem?

32 Chapter 11 Living Resources Which zone probably has the greatest variety of living things? How is variety related to water depth?

33 Chapter 11 Living Resources A great blue whale is a filter feeder that eats mostly plankton. Is a blue whale a primary consumer, a secondary consumer, or a top-level consumer? Explain.

34 Chapter 11 Living Resources Section 2: Aquatic Ecosystems What abiotic factors influence aquatic ecosystems? What are the major types of aquatic ecosystems? What are the ecological roles of organisms in aquatic food webs?

35 Chapter 11 Living Resources Freshwater Ecosystems Streams Animals must adapt to currents –Fish have streamline bodies –Insects have hooks or suckers to cling to rocks Few plants can grow here, consumers rely on fallen tree leaves or seeds for foodRivers Currents are slower, warmer, and have less oxygen Plants take root, provide food & habitats

36 Chapter 11 Living Resources Freshwater Ecosystems Ponds & Lakes Water is standing or still Lakes usually larger & deeper Ponds get more sunlight throughout, grow more plants Algae major producer Dragonflies, turtles, snails, & frogs biotic inhabitants Sunfish live near water surface & feed on insects & algae Catfish live near bottom Bacteria & other decomposers feed on organism remains

37 Chapter 11 Living Resources Marine Ecosystems The ocean is home to a number of different ecosystems. Factors such as water temperature and the amount of sunlight determine what types of organisms can live in each zone.

38 Chapter 11 Living Resources Marine Ecosystems The ocean is home to a number of different ecosystems. Factors such as water temperature and the amount of sunlight determine what types of organisms can live in each zone.

39 Chapter 11 Living Resources Ocean Food Web This ocean food web includes typical organisms found in the Arctic Ocean. The arrows indicate what each organism eats.

40 Chapter 11 Living Resources Ocean Food Web Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about the ocean food web.

41 Chapter 11 Living Resources Links on Aquatic Ecosystems Click the SciLinks button for links on aquatic ecosystems.

42 Chapter 11 Living Resources End of Section: Aquatic Ecosystems

43 Chapter 11 Living Resources Why are forests considered renewable resources?

44 Chapter 11 Living Resources How does the clear-cutting logging method differ from selective cutting?

45 Chapter 11 Living Resources How can people manage fisheries for a sustainable yield?

46 Chapter 11 Living Resources Section 3: Forests and Fisheries How can forests be managed as renewable resources? How can fisheries be managed for a sustainable yield?

47 Chapter 11 Living Resources Managing Forests Clear-cutting involves cutting down all the trees in an area at once. Selective cutting involves cutting down only some trees.

48 Chapter 11 Living Resources Managing Fisheries Fishing Limits Laws that ban certain fishing, limit the number of fish or size to be caught Laws or regulations help young fish populations regain healthy numbers Fishing MethodsFishing Methods Laws or regulations tell fishing crews to use nets with larger mesh sizes to allow smaller fish to remain free & grow Outlaw poising fish with cyanide & using explosives to stun fish

49 Chapter 11 Living Resources Logging Methods Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about logging methods.

50 Chapter 11 Living Resources End of Section: Forests and Fisheries

51 Chapter 11 Living Resources ?

52 Section 4: Biodiversity In what ways is biodiversity valuable? What factors affect an area’s biodiversity? Which human activities threaten biodiversity? How can biodiversity be protected?

53 Chapter 11 Living Resources Biodiversity Click to play video

54 Chapter 11 Living Resources Diversity of Species biodiversity More than 1.5 million species have been identified so far. People value wildlife and ecosystems for their beauty and as a source of recreation. In addition, biodiversity has both economic value and ecological within an ecosystem.

55 Chapter 11 Living Resources Factors Affecting Biodiversity Factors that affect biodiversity in an ecosystem include area, climate, and diversity of niches.

56 Chapter 11 Living Resources California Peregrine Falcon Recovery The peregrine falcon, the world’s fastest bird of prey, was nearly extinct in the United States in The pesticide DDT was weakening peregrine eggshells, so eggs rarely hatched. In 1972, the United States banned DDT. Use the graph to answer questions about the peregrine population in California.

57 Chapter 11 Living Resources California Peregrine Falcon Recovery Time interval in years is on the x-axis. Number of breeding pairs of peregrine falcons is on the y-axis. Reading Graphs: What variable is plotted on the x-axis? What variable is plotted on the y-axis?

58 Chapter 11 Living Resources California Peregrine Falcon Recovery The population grew steadily, except for a brief drop around 1980, until 1994, when the number of breeding pairs remained the same for the four following years. Interpreting Data: How did California’s peregrine population change from 1976 to 1998?

59 Chapter 11 Living Resources California Peregrine Falcon Recovery There were only a few breeding pairs at first, and they could produce only a few young. These, in turn, had to grow up before they had a chance to breed. As more pairs grew to breeding age, more and more young could be produced. Inferring: Why do you think the peregrine population grew fairly slowly at first?

60 Chapter 11 Living Resources California Peregrine Falcon Recovery The graph probably would have sloped downward from left to right, possibly reaching zero breeding pairs. Predicting: What might this graph have looked like if DDT had not been banned?

61 Chapter 11 Living Resources More on Biodiversity Click the Planet Diary button for an activity about biodiversity.

62 Chapter 11 Living Resources

63 End of Section: Biodiversity

64 Chapter 11 Living Resources QuickTake Quiz Click to start quiz.


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