Presentation on theme: "Technology...\technology\stunned terrorist.wmv...New York taser deaths.WMV...Taser San Jose.wmv...Pepper Ball\Pepper ball.wmv...corner shot.wmv...Hollywood."— Presentation transcript:
Technology...\technology\stunned terrorist.wmv...New York taser deaths.WMV...Taser San Jose.wmv...Pepper Ball\Pepper ball.wmv...corner shot.wmv...Hollywood cameras.wmv...red lights and robbery cameras.wmv...GPS,DNA burg inv....Taser stabbing arrest.wmv video in court.wmv Ranger LBPD K-9.wmv GPS, Child Molester.wmv HS fight pepper spray.wmv Police car cameras.wmv Taser saves.wmv Taser deranged man.wmv security camera deputy.wmv Cameras in Baltimore.wmv
US Department of Justice use-of-force continuum 1. Verbal commands 2. Use of hands 3. Chemical agents, baton or other impact weapon 4. Canine 5. Less-than-lethal projectiles 6. Deadly force Where would electrical devices go?
New-age weapons in wide use Pepper spray Pepper balls Impact munitions Stun guns and Taser™
Pepper spray Inflames mucus membranes, causes severe, highly distracting irritation for up to twenty minutes – Generally minor residual effects North Carolina study of suspect injuries before/after pepper spray began to be used North Carolina study – Pepper spray is usually effective – Reduced number of assaults on police – Reduced citizen complaints of excessive force Study of 63 prisoners who died after the use of pepper spray Study of 63 prisoners – Two of the 63 deaths (both asthmatics) were caused or made more likely by the use of pepper spray – Pepper spray seems much less effective on persons under influence of drugs
Pepper Ball Guns Fire small, hard plastic balls that shatter on impact and expel atomized pepper spray Air powered, can cause welts and serious injury if balls directly strike a person, which is a near-certainty as usually many shots are taken (guns can fire full-auto) Guns are expensive, up to $2,000 each Not a close-in weapon
Impact munitions Knockdown Shotguns are the most common delivery method – Bean bag – Plastic batons (e.g., “rubber bullet”) NIJ study of 373 incidents with 969 projectiles fired (65% beanbags, 28% plastic batons) NIJ study – 782 injuries, with 80% minor bruises and abrasions – Three and one-half percent of hits resulted in broken bones – One and one-half percent of hits penetrated the skin – Eight deaths Police are trained to fire at center body mass (chest/abdomen) – Increases likelihood a suspect will be hit – Causes more severe injuries, especially at closer distances
Stun gun / “Taser”™ Electrical shock incapacitates by inducing involuntary muscle contractions Stun gun – probes pushed against suspect Taser™ - shoots two darts up to 20 feet
Stun guns – good and bad Advantages – Subdue violent persons without using deadly force – Reduce injuries to everyone Concern – Can encourage use of force by making it simple or enticing Are Tasers truly less than lethal”? – Claims of safety and effectiveness exaggerated? – May cause heart attacks if persons are agitated, under influence of drugs or have pre- existing medical problems – NIJ-funded study of stun guns and Tasers is underway
Atlanta Police End Standoff With Crane Climber Reuters, 5/28/05 SWAT team members used a Taser to arrest a Florida murder suspect who tried to evade police by climbing atop a crane. Carl Roland, 41, was taken into custody without further incident. “We got him into a position where we could effectively utilize the Taser in a secure environment without any risk of harm to Mr. Roland” said police. Roland is a suspect in the strangulation of his former girlfriend, Jennifer Gonzalez, whose body was found in a pond behind her Clearwater, Florida apartment earlier this week. The fugitive’s actions drew the attention of media from around the world. Some Atlanta residents also showed up with signs reading “Jump”.
A “stunned” terrorist July 27, 2005, Birmingham: Yasin Omar, positively ID’d as one of the would-be bombers in the second wave of attacks six days earlier was arrested in an early a.m. raid. He was subdued with a stun gun.
An excellent application of the Taser Officers repeatedly Tasered a man who was being held down by neighbors after allegedly stabbing a 6-year old to death and critically injuring his mother By not using a gun: – Officers avoided endangering others – Officers avoided psychological trauma to themselves and others – The suspect is alive to tell his side of the story. Is he in fact the one responsible for killing the boy? (In this case it’s quite obvious, but things are not always as they seem!)
Tustin Man Dies after Taser hit City News Service and OC Register, 5/23-25/05 A burglary suspect died after Tustin police officers shot him twice with a Taser when they found him inside an unoccupied apartment that was littered with glass from a break-in. Richard Alvarado, 38, was apparently under the influence of drugs and uncooperative when he was shot with the weapon. In October 2003 a 40-year old Moreno Valley man died after being shot twice with a Taser by Brea police. A lawsuit against the city and the device manufacturer, Taser International, is pending. Taser, which claims the product is safe, reports that it is presently defending against eleven wrongful death lawsuits connected with its use. Although police chiefs are aware of the controversy most Orange County law enforcement agencies continue to use the device, which they feel is very useful.
K-9 Track, flush and arrest (“bite and hold”) Search for weapons, drugs, explosives Deterrence and intimidation Instances of excessive application and misuse – Use against civil rights marchers and anti-war protesters – Image issue, particularly in minority communities
Less-than-lethal weapons – do they always work? Corona Police Kill Assailant in Cinema L.A. Times, 5/5/05 Corona police officers responding to a call shot and killed a man inside the Edwards Corona 15 movie theatres. Officers first encountered the suspect behind a store, trying to slit his wrists with a butcher knife. Although police fired a Taser and several rounds from a beanbag shotgun the man got away, ran to an intersection and unsuccessfully tried to carjack a vehicle. Officers then chased the man to the theatre. A Corona police spokesperson said the man was shot because he posed a threat to officers.
Less-than-lethal weapons – considerations Availability Suitability Crime severity Urgency Number of officers available Speed of response Stability of scene Suspect actions Presence of real or potential victims
Surveillance video cameras Excellent opportunity to capture evidence of crimes Present in many businesses and public venues – Archival (after-the-fact) – Real-time monitoring Interpretation issues – Fixed positions – Audio not permitted Image quality issues – Low frame rate and resolution – Little maintenance Tape preservation issues Privacy concerns
Bringing the public into the fight In July 2008 Pamela Fayed, wife of wealthy gold tycoon James Fayed was stabbed to death in a Century City parking garage. Suspicion immediately centered on her husband, a suspect in a major trading fraud, a case in which she had been cooperating with the FBI. The couple is also in the middle of a divorce. This video depicts a Suzuki SUV leaving the garage shortly after the murder. The couple had been in the building separately visiting their lawyers. The vehicle had been rented using James Fayed’s corporate credit card, and police believe that the passenger is James Fayed. The driver is unknown. This videotape was released to the news media in an attempt to identify him. James Fayed and an employee, Jose Moya, who supposedly recruited the killer, are in custody awaiting trial for the murder.
Police car cameras Same advantages and limitations as fixed surveillance cameras Cannot be “on” all the time – Automatically activated during traffic stops – Can capture audio from officer microphones Expensive to purchase, install and maintain Issue – do they promise more than what is realistic?
Automated License Plate Imaging Long Beach PD one of first with the system – Cost $20,000 per unit – Currently in 4 cars Automatically image license plates of vehicles passing by police car in either direction Plates automatically run for wants and warrants – Can image 3,000 per shift (officers can type in 150 max) – An alarm sounds if there is a “hit” – Every image recorded, can be downloaded at shift end Eliminates accusations of profiling
Cell phone tracking When cell phones are on they are electronically connected to a tower. Privacy concerns – Movements of cell-phone customers can be traced after-the-fact through their telephone calls. Permanent electronic record of towers used Can often be done on written demand to a carrier by a law- enforcement agency, or on issuance of a subpoena No search warrant necessary No probable cause determination required – Real-time movement can also be captured when cell phones are “on” (calls not required) Generally same guidelines A few courts are imposing search warrant/probable-cause requirements
GPS – Global Positioning System Replaces or supplants difficult and expensive physical observation Economic and practical benefits Major limitation: location, not observation Should mere presence be sufficient? Is there a difference between being present in a school parking lot and at Hobby City?
Stopping fleeing cars On-Star “Stolen Vehicle Slowdown” technology: Available in 1 million 2009 GM products, allows OnStar operator to remotely trigger a unit that restricts fuel flow, slowing vehicles down to 3-5 mph. Star Chase “Pursuit Management System”: Launcher on front grill of police car fires a GPS tracking device that sticks on suspect vehicle. Presently being tested by LAPD.
DNA in Girl's Tears Point to Killer, D.A. Says AP, 3/21/2005 According to the prosecutor, DNA from Samantha Runnion’s tears was found in an inside door of the vehicle used by her alleged killer, Alejandro Avila. More DNA material was found on the vehicle’s center console and in scrapings taken from the victim’s fingernails. Samantha was kidnapped in July 2002 while playing in front of her home with a friend. Her body was found the next day. She had been sexually assaulted, then suffocated. In an unrelated case, Avila was acquitted in 2001 of molesting two girls.
Hillside burglars Between a ring of burglars stole more than $10 million in cash and jewelry from 150 homes in West Los Angeles and Beverly Hills, repeatedly defeating video and alarm systems. Police finally got their break when DNA secretly collected from Troy Thomas by a surveillance team was matched to DNA left behind in 2006 and 2008, reportedly on abandoned safes and inside homes. When arrested in January 2009 Thomas, a previously convicted burglar with two strikes, owned an auto brokerage and lived in a $1 million home. More arrests are pending.
DNA – what is it? Molecules that carry genetic information specific for each person Present in tissue, hair, bodily secretions (e.g., sweat) and fluids (e.g., blood, urine, saliva) Arranged in two strands that spiral G Each strand contains a sequence of “bases”, the chemicals Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine Bases are bound across strands, but only in these “base pairs”: G A T G C biology.washington.edu The only difference between people is in the sequence of these “base pairs”
DNA analysis Actual sequence of base pairs fully identifies a particular person – Cannot be used to match (there are too many base pairs in someone’s DNA!) Each person inherits repetitive sequences of base pairs (VNTR, variable number tandem repeats). These can be matched.
Types of DNA Nuclear: DNA from a cell’s nucleus. It has the complete DNA sequence and has been accepted in Court as positive ID. Mitochondrial: from a cell, outside the nucleus. Much m0re abundant than nuclear DNA but has only part of the DNA sequence. – Cannot be used as positive ID but can rule out persons as a source – No general rule allowing its use in Court – Used in Scott Peterson trial: One hair found in his boat was linked to his mother-in-law (both share a DNA sequence that is present in 1 out of 112 Caucasians). YSTR: from the “Y” chromosome, found only in males.chromosome – Cannot be used as positive ID – Useful in sex assaults when female DNA obscures other DNA sequences.
Considerations Results can be a match, elimination or inconclusive – One dissimilarity (foreign VNTR pattern) eliminates Probabilities can range from 1 in 20 to less than one in a million Errors – Degradation through heat, light, moisture, bacteria – Band shifting – Contamination (coughing, sneezing, skin flaking) – False negatives seem more common (need only one dissimilarity to exclude)
DNA Interpretation is Subject to Error Virginia Governor Orders Review of 150 DNA Cases by Crime Lab NY Times, 5/7/05 An error in examining the DNA of semen found in a rape victim, which nearly led to the execution of the wrong person, led Virginia’s governor to order a complete review of all cases handled by the lab’s director, Jerry Ban. The lab had twice failed to identify the true donor of the semen found in a victim even though the person responsible for the crime was a convicted serial rapist. Auditors from the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors sharply criticized the Virginia lab, once thought to be the nation’s finest, for caving in to pressures from the State’s former Governor to quickly solve cases. Earl Washington, Jr. Innocent but nearly executed
AFIS – Automated Fingerprint Identification System
Fingerprint Comparison Compare pattern (loop, arch, whorl) If similar, then compare minutiae (where ridges start, stop and separate) – Islands, dots, bifurcations, ridge endings Set number of points (6-15) must be identical in type and location with known print to make a positive identification “Locations” found as on a map and by counting ridges
AFIS Most local jurisdictions send two copies of arrestee fingerprint cards to a State repository One copy is forwarded to the FBI Most States and the FBI digitize these cards and store them in a computer database Fingerprints of detained individuals and fingerprints (even partial) recovered at crime scenes can be checked on these databases – Fingerprints are digitized – Computer reports close “hits” to existing fingerprint images – A fingerprint examiner then makes a microscopic comparison
Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) Old system required having a 10-print card on file – Questioned print compared to card New system – AFIS – Digitizes 10-print cards from arrested persons – Digitizes crime scene prints – Compares both, looking for possible matches Final match must be done in the conventional way, by comparing minutiae
NIBIN – National Integrated Ballistic Information Network
Bullets – individual characteristics Excepting shotguns, barrels are rifled to impart spin on a bullet Different gun makers have different rifling schemes – Different numbers of lands (raised area) and grooves Rifling process creates imperfections inside the barrel, unique for each gun – Can transfer unique markings to bullets Compare known bullets fired on recovered gun with questioned (recovered) bullets
Cartridge casings – individual characteristics Loading and extraction process will cause unique marks and scratches on shell casings Firing pins may cause unique markings on primer Face of the breech may cause unique markings
NIBINNIBIN – National Integrated Ballistic Information Network Using a gun leaves unique markings on bullets and cartridge casings These markings are scanned into a computer and stored in a database – Bullets and cartridge casings recovered from crime scenes – Bullets and cartridge casings test-fired through seized guns New digital images are compared to those already in the database Any close “hits” are reported by the computer A technician then makes a microscopic comparison If there are sufficient points of identification it can be said that: – Different bullets or cartridge casings are from the same weapon – A bullet or cartridge casing is from a specific weapon Presently 182 law enforcement agencies participate in the program – No national database – not all-inclusive – LAPD, LASD and Cal DOJ have the equipment Many success storiessuccess stories
Comparison example Confirmation requires individual microscopic comparison