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End Show Slide 1 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

2 End Show Slide 2 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28-1 Introduction to the Arthropods

3 End Show Slide 3 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an Arthropod? Arthropods have a segmented body, a tough exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. Arthropods include insects, crabs, centipedes, and spiders.

4 End Show Slide 4 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an Arthropod? Arthropods are surrounded by a tough external covering, or exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is made from protein and chitin. Chitin is a carbohydrate.

5 End Show Slide 5 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an Arthropod? All arthropods have jointed appendages. Appendages are structures that extend from the body wall. Legs and antennae are appendages.

6 End Show Slide 6 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Arthropods use complex organ systems to carry out different essential functions. Organ systems are interrelated; the functioning of one system depends on that of other systems.

7 End Show Slide 7 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Feeding Arthropods include herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. There are filter feeders, detritivores, and parasites. The mouthparts of arthropods are adapted to the type of food the arthropod eats.

8 End Show Slide 8 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Most aquatic arthropods, such as lobsters and crabs, respire through featherlike gills. Horseshoe crabs respire through book gills.

9 End Show Slide 9 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Circulation Arthropods have an open circulatory system. The heart pumps blood through arteries that branch and enter the tissues. Heart

10 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 10 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall How are arthropods classified?

11 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 11 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Excretion In aquatic arthropods, diffusion moves wastes from the body into the surrounding water.

12 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 12 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Response Most arthropods have a well-developed nervous system. All arthropods have a brain. Two nerves connect the brain to a ventral nerve cord. Along this nerve cord are several groups of nerve cells called ganglia.These ganglia coordinate the movements of individual legs.

13 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 13 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Most arthropods have sophisticated sense organs such as compound eyes. Compound eyes may have more than 2000 separate lenses and can detect color and motion very well.

14 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 14 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Movement Arthropods move using well-developed groups of muscles that are coordinated and controlled by the nervous system. Muscles generate force by contracting and then pulling on the exoskeleton.

15 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 15 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Form and Function in Arthropods Reproduction In some species, males deposit sperm inside females. In other species, the males deposit a sperm packet that is picked up by the females. Aquatic arthropods may have internal or external fertilization.

16 End Show Slide 16 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28–2 Groups of Arthropods

17 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 17 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Arthropods are classified based on the number and structure of their body segments and appendages—particularly their mouthparts. The three major groups of arthropods are: crustaceans spiders and their relatives insects and their relatives

18 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 18 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans What are the distinguishing features of the crustaceans?

19 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 19 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans Crustaceans are primarily aquatic. This subphylum includes crabs, shrimps, lobsters, crayfishes, and barnacles.

20 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 20 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans Crustaceans typically have two pairs of antennae, two or three body sections, and chewing mouthparts called mandibles. Abdomen Mandible Second antenna First antenna Cephalothorax

21 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 21 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans The crayfish has a body plan that is typical of many crustaceans. The anterior cephalothorax is formed by fusion of the head with the thorax. Cephalothorax

22 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 22 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans The thorax lies just behind the head and houses most of the internal organs.

23 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 23 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans The abdomen is the posterior part of the body. Abdomen

24 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 24 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans The carapace is the part of the exoskeleton that covers the cephalothorax. Carapace

25 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 25 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans In a crustacean, the first two pairs of appendages are antennae. First antenna Second antenna

26 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 26 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans The third pair of appendages are the mandibles. A mandible is a mouthpart adapted for biting and grinding food. Mandible

27 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 27 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans Decapods have five pairs of legs. In crayfishes, the first pair of legs, called chelipeds, have large claws that catch, pick up, crush, and cut food. Cheliped Walking legs

28 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 28 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans Behind these legs are four pairs of walking legs. Cheliped Walking legs

29 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 29 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans Along the abdomen are several pairs of swimmerets, which are flipperlike appendages used for swimming. Swimmerets

30 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 30 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Crustaceans The final abdominal segment is fused with a pair of paddlelike appendages to form a large, flat tail. Tail

31 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 31 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives What are the distinguishing features of spiders and their relatives?

32 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 32 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, and scorpions are chelicerates. Chelicerates lack antennae.

33 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 33 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Chelicerates have mouthparts called chelicerae and two body sections, and nearly all have four pairs of walking legs. Fanglike chelicera

34 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 34 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Chelicerates have two pairs of appendages attached near the mouth that are adapted as mouthparts. Fanglike chelicera

35 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 35 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Chelicerae contain fangs and are used to stab and paralyze prey. Fanglike chelicera

36 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 36 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Pedipalps are longer than the chelicerae and are usually modified to grab prey. Pedipalp

37 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 37 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Chelicerates are divided into three main classes. Merostomata includes horseshoe crabs. Pycnogonida includes sea spiders. Arachnida, or arachnids, includes spiders, mites, ticks, and scorpions. Horseshoe crabs and sea spiders are both marine organisms.

38 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 38 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Horseshoe Crabs Horseshoe crabs are found in shallow water on soft sandy or muddy bottoms. There has been a decline in number of individuals, as a consequence of coastal habitat destruction and pollution. They have chelicerae, five pairs of walking legs, and a long spikelike tail that is used for movement. While they can swim upside down, they usually are found on the ocean floor searching for worms and molluscs, which are their main food. They may also feed on crustaceans and even small fish.

39 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 39 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Horseshoe crab

40 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 40 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Horseshoe crab

41 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 41 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Sea Spiders Sea spiders have long legs in contrast to a small body size. The number of walking legs is usually eight (four pairs), but species with five and six pairs exist. Because of their small size and slender body and legs, no respiratory system is necessary, with gases moving by diffusion.respiratory systemdiffusion A proboscis allows them to suck nutrients from soft- bodied invertebrates, and their digestive tract has diverticula extending into the legs.proboscisinvertebrates diverticula

42 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 42 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Sea spider

43 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 43 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Spiders Spiders capture and feed on animals ranging from other arthropods to small birds.

44 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 44 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Some spiders spin webs of a strong, flexible protein called silk, which they use to catch flying prey. Others stalk and then pounce on their prey. Some spiders lie in wait and leap out to grab insects that venture too near.

45 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 45 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Spiders do not have jaws for chewing, they must liquefy their food to swallow it. Once a spider captures its prey, it uses fanglike chelicerae to inject paralyzing venom into it.

46 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 46 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives All spiders produce silk. Spiders spin silk into webs, cocoons for eggs, and wrappings for prey. Silk Silk glands

47 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 47 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives They do this by forcing liquid silk through spinnerets, which are organs that contain silk glands. Spinnerets

48 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 48 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Mites and Ticks Mites and ticks are small arachnids that are often parasitic. Their chelicerae and pedipalps are specialized for digging into a host’s tissues and sucking out blood or plant fluids. Ticks can transmit bacteria that cause serious diseases.

49 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 49 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Spiders and Their Relatives Scorpions Scorpions inhabit warm areas around the world. Scorpions have pedipalps that are enlarged into claws. Scorpions chew their prey.

50 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 50 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Insects and Their Relatives What are the distinguishing features of insects and their relatives?

51 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 51 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Insects and Their Relatives Centipedes, millipedes, and insects are uniramians. Uniramians have jaws, one pair of antennae, and unbranched appendages.

52 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 52 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Insects and Their Relatives Centipedes Centipedes have from a few to more than 100 pairs of legs. Most body segments bear one pair of legs each. Centipedes are carnivores whose mouthparts contain venomous claws that they use to catch and stun or kill their prey.

53 End Show 28–2 Groups of Arthropods Slide 53 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Insects and Their Relatives Millipedes Millipedes have a highly segmented body. Each millipede segment bears two pairs of legs. Millipedes defend themselves by rolling up into a ball or by secreting unpleasant or toxic chemicals. They feed on dead and decaying plant material.

54 End Show - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 54 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28–2

55 End Show Slide 55 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28–2 The two main groups of chelicerates are a.spiders and scorpions. b.horseshoe crabs and spiders. c.horseshoe crabs and arachnids. d.arachnids and insects.

56 End Show Slide 56 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28–2 Insects are part of the group a.crustaceans. b.uniramians. c.chelicerates. d.diplopods.

57 End Show Slide 57 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28–2 Most mites and ticks are a.parasites. b.predators. c.herbivores. d.detritovores.

58 End Show Slide 58 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28–2 Which of the following is NOT a typical crustacean characteristic? a.either two or three body segments b.chewing mouthparts called mandibles c.chelicerae that paralyze prey d.two pairs of antennae

59 End Show Slide 59 of 42 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 28–2 Spiders differ from the other arachnids because they have a.two major body segments and six legs. b.three major body segments and eight legs. c.two major body segments and eight legs. d.three major body segments and six legs.

60 END OF SECTION


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