Presentation on theme: "Following the conclusion of WWII, Stalin isolates the Soviet Union – governments and citizens begin to fear communism as the new enemy. In 1945, Igor."— Presentation transcript:
Following the conclusion of WWII, Stalin isolates the Soviet Union – governments and citizens begin to fear communism as the new enemy. In 1945, Igor Gouzenko goes to Canadian authorities and identifies himself as a Russian spy – spying on Canada. A “witch hunt” begins – 20 people sentenced.
Following the war, hundreds of thousands of Europeans want to relocate to Canada – escaping the devastation and unrest of post war Europe. Canada does not want all of them – only hard workers – Imm. officials asked to check for calluses. Canada puts up obstacles to prevent “DP’s”
Following the war, Newfoundland is a independent colony of England. Very poor – average income 1/3 that of Canadians. Joey Smallwood pushes Newfoundland to consider confederation with Canada – in hopes that the country’s social programs will help them. Ottawa pledges financial help. Decision goes to a vote. Working class wants Confederation – to improve conditions, big business want independence to maintain cheap labor. 1 st vote a tie, second Confed. carries at 52%. Newfoundland joins Canada on March 31 st, 1949.
1949 – Louis St. Laurent (Right) becomes Canada’s 12 th Prime Minister. Appoints Lester B. Pearson as Canada’s Minster of External Affairs.
1947 – Imperial Oil hits oil in Edmonton. By 1950, Canada leads the world in oil exploration. Kitimat is created for the largest power plant system in the world for aluminium smelting. This “wonder” of engineering displaces the Cheslata people.
Canada a key member in the formation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty organization - a military alliance to establish a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. Largely put in place to control the spread of Communism. Pearson sees Canada’s role as a promoter of global peace.
1950 – Communist North Korea (backed by the Soviets) invades South Korea – backed by the United Nations. A security force is dispatched including 27,000 Canadians. When this force succeeds in pushing the N.K. back, Pearson calls for a cease fire – the US ignores this and attempts to eliminate the Communists – they fail.
US senator Joseph McCarthy creates major panic by continually fueling America’s fear of communist spies. This fear spreads to Canada – in Quebec, the Padlock Law is used to search suspected homes and individuals without rights. Pearson refuses to allow the CIA to investigate Canadians.
J. Edgar Hoover, FBI leader creates a file on Pearson, suspecting him of being a communist sympathizer. In October 1952, Pearson is elected President of the UN general assembly.
1953 – Cold War intensifies, as both the US and Russia have the H-Bomb. Bomber and ICBM’s have range to destroy entire planet – MAD (mutually assured destruction)
US installs Distant Early Warning Line (DEW LINE) in Polar region of Canada / Alaska to warn of incoming Russian attack. Many grow wary of US military presence.
A military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel beginning on 29 October 1956. The attack followed Egypt's decision to nationalize the Suez Canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam. Russia backs Egypt and threatens the use of Atomic weapons. Peace talks are tense – Pearson suggests the creation of a UN Peacekeeping force to stabilize borders while talks continue. Dispute resolved – Pearson wins Nobel Prize – Canada seen as independent on world stage.
Mid – 1950’s Golden Age of the car – Canadians chase the American dream – house in the suburbs – road construction. People begin spending more than they earn – Credit. Baby Boomers Peak.
March 1955 – Montreal Canadiens battling for first place when super star Maurice “the Rocket” Richard is attacked by Bruin player. He defends himself, but NHL president Campbell rules him suspended.
Campbell attends the next Canadiens game, and is attacked by fans.
Riots break out in Montreal – fans see it as a punishment for the Rocket being French. The Rocket is the only one that can call for peace.
54 million see Elvis’ first TV appearance – parents/ teachers/ priests horrified and outraged. Social times are changing.
John Diefenbaker grew up in Saskatchewan – a conservative with small town Canadian interests. Condemns the internment of the Japanese.
C.D.Howe begins a pipeline across Canada under Liberal approval – but little consultation. Hires American company to build it – Diefenbaker challenges US help in Parliament – liberals attempt to over rule him, but it costs them the next election.
1957 – Diefenbaker’s Conservatives stun the well established Liberals with a minority win.
July 1 st – 1958, Rene Levesque and Joyce Davidson host Canada’s 1 st live –coast to coast show – But US feeds dominate. Polls show 52% of Canadians not interested in the Monarchy.
1959 – the St. Lawrence Seaway opens allowing ships to move right to the far west of the Great Lakes.
General public panic about the threat of nuclear attack intensifies in the 1960’s 1957, Canada joins NORAD defense network.
That same year, Diefenbaker cancels the AVRO ARROW, a Canadian designed and built bomber attack fighter that would have been the most advanced in the world. Instead, he accepts US Beaumark missiles – designed to use only nuclear warheads.
Women unite against Diefenbaker – “Voice of Women” is formed to promote global peace and the rejection of Nuclear weapons. Pearson leads to fight against Nuclear weapon acceptance. In 1961, new US President John F. Kennedy supports Diefenbaker.
1962, Cuban Missile Crisis – US spy planes discover long range missiles in Cuba – Kennedy challenges. Nuclear issue defines election in Canada – Diefenbaker suggests accepting the missiles, but not warheads. – He is mocked. Pearson wins, but in a surprise move, promotes the acceptance of warheads. Canada becomes a nuclear power.