2 Taxonomy of Chapter 5: The Microbial World Monera (Prokaryotes)BacteriaHeterotrophic bacteriaAutotrophic bacteriaCyanobacteriaArchaea
3 Taxonomy of Chapter 5: The Microbial World ProtistaUnicellular Algae – Plant like protistsDiatomsDinoflagellatesZooxanthellaePfiesteriaOther Unicellular Algae
4 Taxonomy of Chapter 5: The Microbial World Protista Cont.Protozoans – Animal Like ProtistsForiminiferansRadiolariansCiliatesFungi
5 Microorganisms Include the smallest and simplest organisms on earth Represent all three biological domainsAre the most important primary producers in many marine environmentsDirectly or indirectly feed most marine animals
6 Electron micrograph showing Cyclobacteriaum marinus, A ring forming marine bacterium.
7 I. Prokaryotes Simplest and smallest and oldest life forms Carry out most all chemical processes of more complex organismsDiffer from eukaryotes in the circular DNA that encodes genetic information and size of ribosomesAll are enclosed by a cell wall in which lies a plasma or cell membraneAll lack membrane-bound organelles.
8 Thiomargarita namibiensis, largest bacterium! Can be .03 inches wide.Round grains are sulfur granules.
9 A. BacteriaStructurally simple but have a great range of metabolic abilities and chemical featuresHave many shapes: spheres, coils, rods, ringsMuch smaller than single-celled eukaryotesHave rigid, strong cell wallsOften covered by gelatinous materialSometimes visible as pink or iridescent patches in stagnant pools
10 i. Heterotrophic Bacteria Most are decomposers (decay bacteria) and ensure the recycling of nutrientsFound throughout the water columnFeed many benthic animalsSome can degrade oil and toxic pollutantsSome spoil fish and shellfish catches
11 ii. Autotrophic Bacteria Are primary producers, only some are photosyntheticAccount for much of primary production in seaSome bacteria produce sulfur instead of oxygen!Chemosynthetic (chemoautotrophic) bacteria derive energy from H2, or H2S or NH3.
12 iii. Cyanobacteria “Blue-green” algae Contain chlorophyll and phycocyanin and often phycoerythrin.Photosynthesis occurs on folded membranes in the cell, not in chloroplasts.Probably among the first photosynthetic organisms on earth.Stromatolites may date back 109 years!Many species of cyanobacteria can withstand wide ranges of salinity and temperature.
13 Stromatolites, calcareous mounds deposited by cyanobacteria, are often found as fossils.
14 Planktonic species may reproduce quickly and change the water color (red tide). Some cause rashes on swimmers.
15 Some endolithic cyanobacteria burrow into rocks and coral skeletons
16 Endophytes are cyanobacteria that live inside algae. Some cyanobacteria lose their ability to photosynthesize and are heterotrophs.Many carry out nitrogen fixation.
17 Epiphytes are photosynthetic cyanobacteria that live on other plants
18 Japanese Pufferfish store a deadly toxin, tetrodotoxin produced by a symbiotic bacteria. The fish is prepared by special chefs and many deaths occur each year in Japan (as well as suicides by disgraced chefs.)
19 iv. Archaea Simplest, most primitive forms of life 3.8 x 109 years old!!Small, spherical, spiral or rod-shaped cellsUsed to be classified with bacteria, now thought to be more closely related to eukaryotes.May be heterotrophs or autotrophs.
20 Methanogens: methane makers, are Important decomposers. Some are N2 Fixers. Some break down material in Sewage plants.
21 Archaea: Extremophiles Some archaea have been found in sulfur springs, saline lakes and highly acid or alkaline environments.Some are found in hydrothermal vents.Some can exist at temperatures up to 235 degres Fahrenheit!They do not depend upon extreme environments, contrary to popular opinion.
23 II. Unicellular Algae Kingdom Protista Are mostly aquatic, mostly photosyntheticAre eukaryotic (cells contain organelles)Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts.Lack flowers, have simple reproductive structures.Lack true leaves, stems and roots
25 Some unicellular organisms that are claimed by both botanistsand zoologists are classified as Protista.
26 A. Diatoms Phylum Bacillariophyta Unicellular, may form chains or starsEnclosed by cell walls made of SiO2 (sillica)Frustule, glassy shell, is made of two halves with intricate perforations (holes) and ornaments.Frustule allows passage of light for photosynthesis, as well as gases.
28 Diatoms’ color is due to carotenoid pigments and chlorophyll a and c. Efficient photosynthetic factoriesAccount for major share of C and O produced on earth.Half of all species are marine, most planktonic, but some attach.Brown scum of mudflats or aquaria is made of diatoms.
30 Reproduce asexually or sexually. Fertilization results in auxosporesBlooms are periods of rapid reproduction- diatoms get smaller because they use up the silica in sea waterFrustules of dead diatoms falls to the sea bed and forms siliceous material called diatomaceous ooze.- mined and used as filters in pools, for clarifying beer, as insulators and in toothpaste
31 B. Dinoflagellates Phylum Dinoflagellata Large group of planktonic, unicellular organismsPossess two flagella that direct movementCell wall is armored with cellulose platesMost can photosynthesizeSome have a light sensitive crude eyeMost are marine
32 Dinoflagellate showing the theca (cell wall) made of cellulose plates.The theca is marked by grooves for flagella.
33 Dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra is bioluminescent and causes red tides!
34 The Bay of Fire in Puerto Rico is filled with bioluminescence from Phrodinium bahamense, a photosynthetic dinoflagellate.They have a symbiotic relationship with mangrove trees thatborder the bay.
35 i. ZooxanthellaeGolden brown photosynthetic cells that are dinoflagellates that live with an animal host.Host may be a sponge, anemone or clam.They fix CO2 and release organic matter used by coral to help build the coral skeleton.
36 ii. Pfiesteria (phantom dinoflagellate) Parasitic with life cycles that include free-swimming stagesSpends most of its life as a cyst in sedimentsBlooms are triggered by coastal pollutionPfiesteria releases powerful poisons that stun fishHarmful to shellfish and humansMemory loss and gastrointestinal side effects
37 Other Unicellular Algae Dictyocha speculum, a silicoflagellate
38 Other Unicellular Algae Umbilicosphaera sibogae, covered with calcium carbonate button called a coccolith (hence name Coccolithophorids)
39 III. Protozoans Kingdom Protista and ?? Structurally simple, diverse organisms that are animal likeIngest food and are eukaryoticSome contain chlorophyllMost are single celled and microscopicPlaced in Protista with unicellular algae and seaweedsOnly common characteristic is their single cell!
40 ProtozoansThe single cell is considered a “super cell” which performs many of the functions carried out by cells in more complex organisms.They live in fresh and marine environments and inside other organisms
41 A. Foraminiferans Marine protozoans with a shell of CaCO3. Pseudopodia, extensions of cytoplasm, are used to trap diatoms and other foodMost live on the bottomShells contribute to calcareous material on coral reefs and beaches.Shells of the few planktonic forams sink and form foraminiferan ooze (limestone and chalk beds – white cliffs of Dover)
42 Foraminiferans with calcareous shells. Long strands are pseudopodia that capture food. On right,Homotrema Rubrum is responsible for Bermuda’spink sand.
44 Climate, Oil and ForamsBecause the shells of warm water species are larger and more porous than cold water species, they are used to estimate ocean temperatures.The distribution also helps determine the age of sediments and aids in finding oil.
45 B. RadiolariansPlanktonic protozoans that secrete beautiful shells made of silica and other minerals.Pseudopodia capture food as in forams.Some form 3 meter long sausage shaped colonies!Shell remains for radiolarian ooze on the sea bed.Shells are more resistant to pressure and thus more common than forams.
46 Radiolarian cell made of a dense central portion surrounded by a less dense zone that is involved in capturing food and buoyancy.
47 C. CiliatesProtozoans with hair like cilia used in locomotion and feeding.Most common freshwater ciliate is the Paramecium.Marine ciliates creep over seaweeds and bottom sediments.Some live inside clams or other organisms.
48 Tintinnids, (ciliates) form a lorica, a loosely fitting shell made of sand grains. Cilia are used in feeding.
49 Fungi Eukaryotic , mostly multicellular Heterotrophs lacking chloroplasts500 marine species, mostly microscopicDecomposers of dead organic matterImportant in mangrove ecosystemSome are parasites that cause diseasesSome live with algae to form lichensMarine lichens are seen as dark brown or black patches on rocky shores in the North Atlantic.
50 Verruculina enalia, a marine Ascomycotina consists of black and carbonaceous fruiting bodies on branchesand twigs at both low and high water marks. It is one ofthe most dominant marine fungi to colonise woodymangrove substrata.
51 This is the black tar lichen. Tar lichens get their common name fromthe fact that they form great swathes of darksmudges on rocks, giving the rock an impressionof being covered in crude oil from an oil spill.