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Chapter 7b Heterotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition These are organisms that can not make their own food Therefore they have to obtain it from.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7b Heterotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition These are organisms that can not make their own food Therefore they have to obtain it from."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Chapter 7b

3 Heterotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition These are organisms that can not make their own food Therefore they have to obtain it from the environment Ingestion  Digestion  Egestion

4 Heterotrophic Nutrition Organisms are unable to convert inorganic materials into organic nutrients Carry out –Mechanical Digestion: physically broken down, the increase in surface area of food by physically grinding and cutting food into smaller pieces –Ex: chewing food with teeth –Chemical Digestion: (hydrolysis)broken down chemically using Enzymes and water Occurs in stages and leads to FINAL END PRODUCTS Can Occur: –Extracellular: in most animals by the use of organs –Intracellular: takes place within a cell, vacuoles and lysosomes required

5 Mechanical/Physical Digestion: the increase in surface area of food by physically grinding and cutting food into smaller pieces Ex: chewing food with teeth Chemical digestion- Large food molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the use of enzymes (Hydrolysis) Four types of digestion :

6 Three steps of Digestion 1.Ingestion 2.Digestion 3.Egestion

7 Ingestion The taking in of food into the body

8 Digestion The process by which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules that can be used by the cells.

9 Egestion The elimination of undigested food from the body in the form of feces. Do not confuse with excretion, which is the removal of cellular wastes and not undigested food

10 5 kingdoms Monera bacteria Protist ameoba paramecium paramecium Plant moss, flowers Trees grass Trees grass Fungi, mushrooms, Mold, mildew, YEAST,RHIZOPUS Animal, Humans, monkeys, whales unicellular multicellular No Nucleus Has a Nucleus autotrophic HeterotrophicAbsorb Ingest

11 5 kingdoms

12 Kingdom: Monera –Most bacteria are heterotrophic. Digestion is Extracellular Some are: Saprophytes:Saprophytes: obtain nutrients from dead animal and plant material. Parasites: live ON or IN the organism on which they feed StreptococciBorrelia Ecoli

13 5 kingdoms Kingdom: Protista ex: Algae, amoeba, paramecium

14 Kingdom: Protista Phyla: Algae, Protozoan, Slime mold ex: Algae, amoeba, paramecium, rotifers Protista Kingdom

15 Kingdom: Protista Amoeba Kingdom: __________ Phylum: ___________ Engulfs food and moves using __________ Carries out __________digestion Uses Lysosomes to carry out ________digestion. ________ is semi permeable. Cyclosis is aka known as __________ streaming. ________ __________ push excess water out of cell. Protist Protozoan Pseudopods Chemical Intracellular Cell membrane cytoplasmic Contractile Vacuole

16 Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Amoeba

17 Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Protozoan Amoeba Nucleus Food vacuole Contractile vacuole Pseudopod Plasma membrane ectoplasm Endoplasm cytoplasm

18 Phagocytosis: the taking in of solid materials using Pseudopods. This is an amoeba ingesting a paramecium.

19 Ingestion: Phagocytosis Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Protozoan

20 Cyclosis-AKA Cytoplasmic Streaming a type of Intracellular circulation occurring inside a cell, in which there is a streaming motion of the cytoplasm.

21 Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Protozoan THE PARAMECIUM

22 Paramecium feeding on Algae, Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Protozoan

23 Kingdom: Protista Paramecium Kingdom: __________ Phylum: ___________ Engulfs food and moves using thousands of __________ Carries out __________digestion Uses Lysosomes to carry out ________digestion. ________ is semi permeable. Cyclosis is aka known as __________ streaming. ________ __________ push excess water out of cell. Protist Protozoan Cilia chemical intracellular Cell Membrane cytoplasmic Contractile vacuole

24 Kingdom: Protista Phylum:Protozoan Paramecium Nucleus Posterior Contractile vacuole Cilia Plasma membrane Micro nucleus Anterior Contractile vacuole trichocyst Anal pore Forming food vacuole lysosome cytoplasm mouth Oral groove gullet

25 5 kingdoms

26 Kingdom:Fungi, Kingdom:Fungi, Rhizopus *The fungi have often been called the kingdom of __________. *Lack chlorophyll, they cannot carry on photosynthesis. *These organisms are heterotrophs. *They live off of dead and decaying material and are Heterotrophic saprophytes. *Fungi live in or on their food supply. The filamentous body of the bread mold called Rhizoids. The _______ penetrate the food source and secrete __________ enzymes. Since the enzymes are secreted outside of the body of the organism __________ digestion is said to take place. The end products of digestion, Monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerols are then absorbed into the bread mold.

27 Kingdom:Fungi Kingdom: __________ Rhizopus, Bread Mold Carries out __________digestion Uses _________ _________to digests its’ food Fungi The fungi have often been called the kingdom of __________. Because they lack chlorophyll, they cannot carry on photosynthesis. These organisms are heterotrophs. They live off of dead and decaying material and are Heterotrophic saprophytes. Fungi live in or on their food supply. The filamentous body of the bread mold called Rhizoids. The _______ penetrate the food source and secrete __________ enzymes. Since the enzymes are secreted outside of the body of the organism __________ digestion is said to take place. The end products of digestion, Monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerols are then absorbed into the bread mold. extracellular Hydrolytic Enzymes

28 Kingdom:Fungi Rhizopus Label the following parts below: SporangiaSpores SporangiophoreStolon rhizoidhyphae Spores rhizoid Stolon Sporangiophore Sporangia

29 5 kingdoms Kingdom: Animalia

30 Figure Vertebrates Invertebrates

31 Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Coelenterata

32 When jellyfish travel at unsafe speeds.

33 Nutrition in Coelenterates, (Cnidarian) Kingdom: __________ Phylum: ___________ * Coelenterates are known as being ______ bodied organisms. *Also called _______ celled organisms. (Cnidaria) *The hydra is _____ cell layers thick. Each layer is separated by the ________. * Have a _______ way digestive tract. * _______ cell is in contact with the environment. * The hydra carries out ________ digestion and ________digestion. * Move by _______________. *Hermaphrodites Hollow Coelenterates Animal Stinging 2 mesoglea one Every intracellular extracellular Summersaults

34 Common Polyp form exhibited in by the hydra: Hypostome Tentacle Gastrovascular cavity Bud Basal Disk (Base) Mouth Nematocyst Ectodermic Cells Mesoglea Endodermic cells Ovary) Testes

35 Hydra: Cross section

36 Longitudinal Section and Cross Section

37 Hydra Ingesting a Daphnia

38 The Hydra Budding Here you can see a photo of a Hydra with two asexual buds. Chlorohydra viridissima

39 Trigger Harpoon

40 Explain how a hydra carries out both types of digestion. –Intracellular and Extracellular

41 Extracellular Digestion Cells secrete enzymes into the GVC Intracellular Digestion Individual cells ingest by phagocytosis and break do daphnia end products

42 Phylum: Annelids (Segmented worms)

43 Crop: Food stored in Food stored in5.Gizzard:mechanicaldigestion 7. Intestine: chemical Hydrolysis + absorption 10.Typhlosole:“enfolding” 3.Esophagus:peristalsis: 6.Skin:GasPERMEABLE, 2.PharynxVacuumAction 10

44 What do we know about the earthworm from lab “CLOSED“CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM” Dorsal and ventral blood vessels (located on the intestine) 5 pair of aortic arches Hemoglobin, red pigmented blood

45 The real Rulers of the Earth… The real Rulers of the Earth… Insects, Crustaceans, Arachnids, Millipedes One recent conservative estimate puts the number of arthropod species in tropical forests at 6 to 9 million species. One recent conservative estimate puts the number of arthropod species in tropical forests at 6 to 9 million species.

46 Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Herbivore: eats plant matter * Uses salivary hydrolytic enzymes * Dimorphic *Tube within a tube body plan Inner tube: Digestive System Outer tube: Exoskeleton, muscles * One way Digestive System * Extracellular Digestion

47 Grasshopper Esophagus Pharynx

48 Answers

49 1. Oral Cavity salivary glands Ex: amylase

50 2. Esophagus Connects mouth to stomach Peristaltic action of the esophagus moves food to the stomach

51 3. Stomach Lining of the stomach contains gastric glands that secrete gastric juice

52 4. Small Intestine Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid digestion is completed here Nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestine Structures like the gall bladder and pancreas secrete enzymes into the small intestine for digestion

53 4. Small Intestine

54 Gall Bladder Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder Bile is secreted by the gall bladder into the small intestine for emulsification Emulsification- the breakdown of fats

55 Pancreas Located near the stomach For digestive purposes, the pancreas secretes: protease- breakdown of proteins lipase- breakdown of lipids (fats)

56 5. Large Intestine Water absorption only NO nutrient absorption occurs here Undigested material is known as feces The large intestine passes the feces into the rectum

57 5. (the quest for Polyps) Colonoscopy:

58 5. Large Intestine ( Colon Polyps_) Polyps are small growths on the inner colon lining that look like warts.

59 5. Removal Colon Polyps_)

60 6. Rectum Temporarily stores the feces

61 7. Anus Opening through which feces passes out of the body (Egestion)

62 (II) Nutrient Absorption Takes place in the small intestine Chemical digestion in humans is accomplished by Hydrolysis and the use of enzymes

63 Villus Lacteal- absorption of fatty acids and glycerol Capillary network- absorption of glucose and amino acids

64 Rou g hage Is an indigestible material in food that provides bulk, which stimulates the muscles of the digestive tube and thus keeps food moving through it. sources: fruits, vegetables, and grains. Lack of roughage in the diet is one cause of constipation.

65 Define these Disorders of the Digestive Tract 1.Anorexia Nervosa 2.Ulcers 3.Constipation 4.Diarrhea 5.Appendicitis 6.Gallstones

66 Anorexia Nervosa A condition in which there is a severe loss of weight accompanied by symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Psychological condition where a person is unable to take or retain food due to an excessive concern about obesity

67 Ulcers an erosion of the surface of the digestive tract associated with pain, nausea, and vomiting.

68 Constipation To much water is absorbed by/in the large intestine. Also can exist due to lack of roughage.

69 Diarrhea Decreased water absorption and increased peristaltic activity of large intestine. Results in an increased, multiple, watery feces.

70 Appendicitis An inflammation of the appendix. Usually feces that infects the appendix.

71 Appendicitis Normal Infected

72 Gallstones An accumulation of hardened cholesterol deposits in the gall bladder.

73 Salt regulation in Reptiles Enough is enough.. The End

74 Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Annelida Has a TUBE w/i a TUBE body plan. 2. Has a 1 way digestive system 3. Feeds on organic material in the soil called HUMUS 4. Skin is PERMEABLE, (allows O2 and CO2 diffusion) 5. Moves using 4 pair of SETAE (per segment) 6. Within the Intestine is the TYPHLOSOLE, its function is to INCREASE SURFACE AREA for maximum food absorption. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Annelida Has a TUBE w/i a TUBE body plan. 2. Has a 1 way digestive system 3. Feeds on organic material in the soil called HUMUS 4. Skin is PERMEABLE, (allows O2 and CO2 diffusion) 5. Moves using 4 pair of SETAE (per segment) 6. Within the Intestine is the TYPHLOSOLE, its function is to INCREASE SURFACE AREA for maximum food absorption.

75 Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Annelida Genus: Lumbricus Species: terrestris Notes if you missed it: * Carries out EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION * Saprophytes feeding on HUMUS * Esophagus Carries out peristalsis: rhythmic contraction that pushes food down towards anus * Food stored in crop * Gizzard: mechanical digestion * Intestine: chemical Hydrolysis digestion + absorption * Typhlosole: “enfolding” inc. surface area

76 1.Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda * Tube within a tube body plan Inner tube: Digestive System Outer tube: Exoskeleton, muscles * One way Digestive System * Extracellular Digestion *Terrestrial- Lives on land * Jointed Appendages (legs) * Hard chitinous exoskeleton * Compound Eyes Herbivore: eats plant matter * Uses salivary hydrolytic enzymes * Dimorphic

77 Arthropods

78 Coelenterate Phases

79 The Stinging Truth If you were to think of a major marine predator, probably one of the last creatures to come to mind would be the jellyfish. Although jellyfish look harmless, they are in fact very efficient predators. They are able to stun or kill their prey with stinging cells called cnidocytes. Each of these cnidocytes contains a tiny harpoon called a nematocyst that when triggered by touch or chemicals not only shoots into the prey, but causes the other cells in the area to activate as well. A toxin is also released which stuns or kills the food. The potency of the toxins varies greatly among the different kinds of jellyfish. That is why some jellyfish, like the sea nettle, are only annoying and some, like the box jellyfish, are extremely dangerous if you come into contact with them.

80 1.What are the two different phyla names for the hydra? 2.How are those names derived?


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