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4 PowerPoint ® Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCC CUNY Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Preventing Violence and Injury
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Preventing Violence and Injury Violence A set of behaviors that produces injuries, as well as the outcomes of these behaviors (the injuries themselves) Intentional injuries Injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation that involves the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community Unintentional injuries Injury, death, or harm that involves accidents committed without intent to harm, often as a result of circumstances, or without premeditation
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Violence in the United States Statistics from the FBI show rates of overall crime and certain types of violent crime have begun showing yearly decreases. Violent crime in the nation dropped 3.5 percent and property crime declined 2.5 percent during the first six months of 2008.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Declining Crime Rates
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Violence in the United States Violence on U.S. Campuses Relationship violence is a serious problem and includes emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. In a recent American College Health Association’s survey, 12 percent of women and 7 percent of men reported being emotionally abused in the past 12 months. Fewer than 25 percent of campus crimes are reported to any authority.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Factors Contributing to Violence Social, Cultural, and Environmental Factors Poverty Unemployment Parental influence Cultural beliefs Discrimination/oppression Religious beliefs and differences Political differences Breakdown in the criminal justice system Stress Heavy use of alcohol and other substances
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Factors Contributing to Violence Personal Precipitators of Violence Anger (primary aggression, reactive aggression) Substance abuse The Impact of the Media Many argue that what we view on television, what we see online, and what video games we play have a link to violent behaviors. Critics argue that perceptions and reality are not the same when it comes to violence. Do you think the media influences your behavior?
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Anytime someone sets out to harm other people or their property, they are committing an intentional injury. There were 9,006 reported victims of hate crimes in 2007 in the United States. Domestic violence is at epidemic levels in the United States.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Homicide Defined as murder or non-negligent manslaughter Fifteenth leading cause of death in the United States Second leading cause of death for persons aged 15 to 24. Hate and Bias- Motivated Crimes Defined as a crime committed against a person, property, or group of people that is motivated by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Bias-Motivated Crimes, 2007
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Gang Violence Once only thought to appear in urban areas, gang violence now appears in rural and suburban communities, particularly in southeastern, southwestern, and western states Complex reasons for joining gangs: provide a sense of belonging to a family feelings of self-worth, companionship, security, and excitement The age range typically is 12 to 22 years. Risk factors include low self-esteem, academic problems, low socioeconomic status, alienation from family and society, a history of family violence, and living in gang-controlled neighborhoods.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Terrorism Use of unlawful force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives Domestic terrorism International terrorism
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Domestic Violence Nearly 5.2 million intimate partner victimizations occur each year among U.S. women aged 18 and older. Approximately 74 percent of all murder-suicides in the United States involve an intimate partner. Of these, 96 percent involve women killed by their intimate partners and 75 percent occur in the home.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gun Debate
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Intimate Partner Violence and Women Women are much more likely to become victims of intimate partner violence than men. In reported assaults, only 31 percent of the men who attack women are strangers. Women do not report domestic violence due to the following: Being financially dependent on their partners Hoping the situation will change Cultural or religious beliefs Being in love with their partner despite the violence
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Cycle of Violence Tension building Acute battering Remorse/reconciliation Unless effective outside intervention is obtained, the cycle will repeat itself again and again
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Intimate Partner Violence against Men Every year in the United States about 3.2 million men are victims of an assault by an intimate partner. Men may not report domestic violence due to the following: Injuries are usually emotional or psychological Fear that no one will believe them Societal judgment about what it means if a woman hits a man Belief that “taking it” and never hitting back is a badge of honor, strength, and masculinity Humiliation and fear of being found out Belief that they deserve bad treatment Lack of awareness of support services
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ABC News Video: Private Battles in Public Places Discussion Questions 1.How would you react to a public argument such as the ones staged in the video? 2.Do you think the people filmed who passed by the argument without intervening reacted badly? 3.Why did a higher number of women than men involve themselves into the altercations? 4.Would the race or ethnicity of a couple affect your decision to become involved in a public argument? 5.What if an argument were not in public? How would your feelings change about involving yourself? | Private Battles in Public Places
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Child Abuse Child abuse is defined as systematic abuse by a caregiver. Exists in all genders, social, ethnic, religious, and racial groups. In 2007, 3.2 million allegations of child abuse and neglect concerning the welfare of approximately 5.8 million children were made to child protective service agencies in the United States.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Common Characteristics of Child Abusers Were abused themselves Poor self-image Feelings of isolation Extreme frustration with life High levels of stress and anxiety Tendency to abuse drugs and alcohol
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities, by Age, 2007
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Old Phones Given New Life “Call to Protect” Program Blackberries, cell phones, computers, and other electronic goods can be donated to a violence prevention agency. Consult the following websites: html
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intentional Injuries Elder Abuse The population of people over the age of 65 will exceed 71 million by The elderly are increasingly becoming victims of domestic violence; of caregiver abuse in assisted living and long-term care facilities; of financial scams and business scams; of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; and neglect, abandonment, and exploitation. As few as 1 in 14 abuse crimes are ever reported.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sexual Victimization Sexual Assault and Rape Sexual assault Rape Aggravated rape (multiple attackers) Simple rape (one attacker) Acquaintance or date rape Rape on U.S. campuses Marital rape
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sexual Victimization Child Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse of children is defined as sexual interaction between a child and an adult or older child. Ranges from sexually suggestive conversation to intercourse or other sexual interaction Most frequent abusers are child’s parent or companion. Most often occurs in child’s home
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sexual Victimization Behaviors Signaling Sexual Abuse Noticeable fear of a person or place Unusual responses by the child when questioned Unreasonable fear of physical exam Drawings that show sexual acts Abrupt changes in behavior Unusual awareness of genitals or sexual acts Attempts to get other children to perform sexual acts
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sexual Victimization Other Forms of Sexual Victimization Sexual Harassment 1.The behavior is unwelcome and unwanted 2.The behavior is sexual in nature or is gender directed 3.The behavior interferes with the ability of someone to pursue and education; perform professional duties; or feel safe or comfortable at his or her school, work, or living environment. Stalking A course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear Between 25 and 30 percent of college women and between 11 and 17 percent of college men have been stalked.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sexual Victimization Emotional and Psychological Abuse Emotional Abuse Constant criticisms, personal verbal attacks, displays of explosive anger meant to intimidate, and controlling behavior Psychological Abuse Psychological abusers seek to intimidate, denigrate, and debase their partners, thereby gaining control over both the partner and the relationship.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sexual Victimization Social Contributors to Sexual Violence Minimization Trivialization Blaming the victim Male socialization Gender roles Male misperceptions Situational factors
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sexual Victimization Why do you think women are reluctant to report sexual harassment? Why do you think men report that they are unaware of their own sexually harassing behaviors?
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries Self-Defense against Personal Assault and Rape Speak in a strong voice. Maintain eye contact with the would-be attacker. Stand up straight, act confident, and remain alert. Draw attention to yourself and your assailant. Scream, “Fire!” Research has shown that passersby are much more likely to help if they hear the word fire rather than just a scream.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries What to Do If a Rape Occurs If You Are a Victim Call Do not bathe. Do not launder the clothes that you are wearing. Save the clothes that you were wearing. Go to a clinic or hospital. Contact a rape assistance hotline.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries If a Friend is the Victim Believe them. Recognize that they are a victim. Encourage a doctor visit immediately. Encourage reporting the crime. Be understanding. Recognize that this is an emotional recovery, and it may take a lot of time to bounce back. Encourage counseling.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries Campuswide Responses to Violence Campus Law Enforcement Has increased in numbers and authority Receiving special training and being issued stun guns and other equipment Prevention and Early Response Efforts Campus alerts for emergency messaging The REVERSE system uses database and geographic information system (GIS) mapping technologies to notify authorities.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries Community Strategies for Preventing Violence Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Injury Response Initiatives Inoculate children against violence in the home. Develop policies, intervention programs, and laws that prevent violence. Work with individuals and develop skills-based educational programs. Provide experiences that help youth develop self-esteem and confidence. Promote tolerance and acceptance. Improve community services. Improve community-based support and treatment for victims.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Unintentional Injuries Occur without planning or intention to harm Examples include car accidents, falls, boating accidents, and workplace accidents. Motor vehicle accidents account for the greatest number of unintentional injury deaths. Bicycle injuries account for more than 500,000 emergency room visits every year.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Unintentional Injuries Vehicle Safety Young drivers (aged 16 to 24) have the highest death rate. Driving drunk is the single greatest risk for all ages Each year, about 40,000 Americans die in automobile crashes. 1.9 million are disabled, 140,000 permanently, as a result of automobile crashes.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Unintentional Injuries Risk-Management Driving Don’t drink and drive. Don’t drive when tired or when in a highly emotional or stressed state. Surround your car with a safety “bubble.” Anticipate the actions of other drivers. Obey all traffic laws. Always wear a seat belt.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Unintentional Injuries Accident-Avoidance Techniques Generally, veer to the right. Steer, don’t skid, off the road to avoid rolling your vehicle. If you have to hit a vehicle, hit one moving in the same direction as your own. If you have to hit a stationary object, try to hit a soft one. If you have to hit a hard object, hit it with a glancing blow. Avoid hitting pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists at all costs.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Unintentional Injuries Cycling Safety Currently, more than 63 million Americans of all ages ride bicycles. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reports about 800 deaths per year from cycling accidents. Approximately 87 percent of fatal collisions were due to cyclists’ errors. Alcohol also plays a significant role in bicycle deaths and injuries.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Unintentional Injuries Accident-Avoidance Techniques Wear a helmet. Don’t drink and ride. Follow traffic laws and ride with the flow of traffic. Wear light reflective clothing. Avoid riding after dark. Know and use proper hand signals. Keep your bicycle in good working condition. Use bike paths whenever possible. Stop at stop signs and traffic lights.
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