2Preventing Violence and Injury A set of behaviors that produces injuries, as well as the outcomes of these behaviors (the injuries themselves)Intentional injuriesInjury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation that involves the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or communityUnintentional injuriesInjury, death, or harm that involves accidents committed without intent to harm, often as a result of circumstances, or without premeditationAdded by BM
3Violence in the United States Statistics from the FBI show rates of overall crime and certain types of violent crime have begun showing yearly decreases.Violent crime in the nation dropped 3.5 percent and property crime declined 2.5 percent during the first six months of 2008.Changed –Please add figure 4.2 Crime Clock for visual appeal
5Violence in the United States Violence on U.S. CampusesRelationship violence is a serious problem and includes emotional, physical, and sexual abuse.In a recent American College Health Association’s survey, 12 percent of women and 7 percent of men reported being emotionally abused in the past 12 months.Fewer than 25 percent of campus crimes are reported to any authority.
6Factors Contributing to Violence Social, Cultural, and Environmental FactorsPovertyUnemploymentParental influenceCultural beliefsDiscrimination/oppressionReligious beliefs and differencesPolitical differencesBreakdown in the criminal justice systemStressHeavy use of alcohol and other substancesAdded unemployment
7Factors Contributing to Violence Personal Precipitators of ViolenceAnger (primary aggression, reactive aggression)Substance abuseThe Impact of the MediaMany argue that what we view on television, what we see online, and what video games we play have a link to violent behaviors.Critics argue that perceptions and reality are not the same when it comes to violence.Do you think the media influences your behavior?
8Intentional InjuriesAnytime someone sets out to harm other people or their property, they are committing an intentional injury.There were 9,006 reported victims of hate crimes in 2007 in the United States.Domestic violence is at epidemic levels in the United States.
9Defined as murder or non-negligent manslaughter Intentional InjuriesHomicideDefined as murder or non-negligent manslaughterFifteenth leading cause of death in the United StatesSecond leading cause of death for persons aged 15 to 24.Hate and Bias- Motivated CrimesDefined as a crime committed against a person, property, or group of people that is motivated by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity
11Intentional Injuries Gang Violence Once only thought to appear in urban areas, gang violence now appears in rural and suburban communities, particularly in southeastern, southwestern, and western statesComplex reasons for joining gangs:provide a sense of belonging to a familyfeelings of self-worth, companionship, security, and excitementThe age range typically is 12 to 22 years.Risk factors include low self-esteem, academic problems, low socioeconomic status, alienation from family and society, a history of family violence, and living in gang-controlled neighborhoods.
12Intentional Injuries Terrorism Use of unlawful force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectivesDomestic terrorismInternational terrorism
13Intentional Injuries Domestic Violence Nearly 5.2 million intimate partner victimizations occur each year among U.S. women aged 18 and older.Approximately 74 percent of all murder-suicides in the United States involve an intimate partner.Of these, 96 percent involve women killed by their intimate partners and 75 percent occur in the home.
15Intentional Injuries Intimate Partner Violence and Women Women are much more likely to become victims of intimate partner violence than men.In reported assaults, only 31 percent of the men who attack women are strangers.Women do not report domestic violence due to the following:Being financially dependent on their partnersHoping the situation will changeCultural or religious beliefsBeing in love with their partner despite the violence
16Intentional Injuries Cycle of Violence Tension building Acute batteringRemorse/reconciliationUnless effective outside intervention is obtained, the cycle will repeat itself again and again
17Intentional Injuries Intimate Partner Violence against Men Every year in the United States about 3.2 million men are victims of an assault by an intimate partner.Men may not report domestic violence due to the following:Injuries are usually emotional or psychologicalFear that no one will believe themSocietal judgment about what it means if a woman hits a manBelief that “taking it” and never hitting back is a badge of honor, strength, and masculinityHumiliation and fear of being found outBelief that they deserve bad treatmentLack of awareness of support services
18ABC News Video: Private Battles in Public Places Discussion QuestionsHow would you react to a public argument such as the ones staged in the video?Do you think the people filmed who passed by the argument without intervening reacted badly?Why did a higher number of women than men involve themselves into the altercations?Would the race or ethnicity of a couple affect your decision to become involved in a public argument?What if an argument were not in public? How would your feelings change about involving yourself?18
19Intentional Injuries Child Abuse Child abuse is defined as systematic abuse by a caregiver.Exists in all genders, social, ethnic, religious, and racial groups.In 2007, 3.2 million allegations of child abuse and neglect concerning the welfare of approximately 5.8 million children were made to child protective service agencies in the United States.
20Intentional Injuries Common Characteristics of Child Abusers Were abused themselvesPoor self-imageFeelings of isolationExtreme frustration with lifeHigh levels of stress and anxietyTendency to abuse drugs and alcohol
21Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities, by Age, 2007
22Old Phones Given New Life “Call to Protect” ProgramBlackberries, cell phones, computers, and other electronic goods can be donated to a violence prevention agency.Consult the following websites:html
23Intentional Injuries Elder Abuse The population of people over the age of 65 will exceed 71 million by 2030.The elderly are increasingly becoming victims of domestic violence; of caregiver abuse in assisted living and long-term care facilities; of financial scams and business scams; of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; and neglect, abandonment, and exploitation.As few as 1 in 14 abuse crimes are ever reported.
24Sexual Victimization Sexual Assault and Rape Sexual assault Rape Aggravated rape (multiple attackers)Simple rape (one attacker)Acquaintance or date rapeRape on U.S. campusesMarital rape
25Sexual Victimization Child Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse of children is defined as sexual interaction between a child and an adult or older child.Ranges from sexually suggestive conversation to intercourse or other sexual interactionMost frequent abusers are child’s parent or companion.Most often occurs in child’s home
26Sexual Victimization Behaviors Signaling Sexual Abuse Noticeable fear of a person or placeUnusual responses by the child when questionedUnreasonable fear of physical examDrawings that show sexual actsAbrupt changes in behaviorUnusual awareness of genitals or sexual actsAttempts to get other children to perform sexual acts
27Sexual Victimization Other Forms of Sexual Victimization Sexual HarassmentThe behavior is unwelcome and unwantedThe behavior is sexual in nature or is gender directedThe behavior interferes with the ability of someone to pursue and education; perform professional duties; or feel safe or comfortable at his or her school, work, or living environment.StalkingA course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fearBetween 25 and 30 percent of college women and between 11 and 17 percent of college men have been stalked.
28Sexual Victimization Emotional and Psychological Abuse Emotional Abuse Constant criticisms, personal verbal attacks, displays of explosive anger meant to intimidate, and controlling behaviorPsychological AbusePsychological abusers seek to intimidate, denigrate, and debase their partners, thereby gaining control over both the partner and the relationship.
29Sexual Victimization Social Contributors to Sexual Violence MinimizationTrivializationBlaming the victimMale socializationGender rolesMale misperceptionsSituational factorsAdded trivialization
30Sexual VictimizationWhy do you think women are reluctant to report sexual harassment?Why do you think men report that they are unaware of their own sexually harassing behaviors?
31Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries Self-Defense against Personal Assault and RapeSpeak in a strong voice.Maintain eye contact with the would-be attacker.Stand up straight, act confident, and remain alert.Draw attention to yourself and your assailant .Scream, “Fire!”Research has shown that passersby are much more likely to help if they hear the word fire rather than just a scream.
32Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries What to Do If a Rape OccursIf You Are a VictimCallDo not bathe.Do not launder the clothes that you are wearing.Save the clothes that you were wearing.Go to a clinic or hospital.Contact a rape assistance hotline.
33Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries If a Friend is the VictimBelieve them.Recognize that they are a victim.Encourage a doctor visit immediately.Encourage reporting the crime.Be understanding.Recognize that this is an emotional recovery, and it may take a lot of time to bounce back.Encourage counseling.
34Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries Campuswide Responses to ViolenceCampus Law EnforcementHas increased in numbers and authorityReceiving special training and being issued stun guns and other equipmentPrevention and Early Response EffortsCampus alerts for emergency messagingThe REVERSE system uses database and geographic information system (GIS) mapping technologies to notify authorities.
35Strategies for Preventing Intentional Injuries Community Strategies for Preventing ViolenceCenter for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Injury Response InitiativesInoculate children against violence in the home.Develop policies, intervention programs, and laws that prevent violence.Work with individuals and develop skills-based educational programs.Provide experiences that help youth develop self-esteem and confidence.Promote tolerance and acceptance.Improve community services.Improve community-based support and treatment for victims.
36Unintentional Injuries Occur without planning or intention to harmExamples include car accidents, falls, boating accidents, and workplace accidents.Motor vehicle accidents account for the greatest number of unintentional injury deaths.Bicycle injuries account for more than 500,000 emergency room visits every year.
37Unintentional Injuries Vehicle SafetyYoung drivers (aged 16 to 24) have the highest death rate.Driving drunk is the single greatest risk for all agesEach year, about 40,000 Americans die in automobile crashes.1.9 million are disabled, 140,000 permanently, as a result of automobile crashes.
38Unintentional Injuries Risk-Management DrivingDon’t drink and drive.Don’t drive when tired or when in a highly emotional or stressed state.Surround your car with a safety “bubble.”Anticipate the actions of other drivers.Obey all traffic laws.Always wear a seat belt.
39Unintentional Injuries Accident-Avoidance TechniquesGenerally, veer to the right.Steer, don’t skid, off the road to avoid rolling your vehicle.If you have to hit a vehicle, hit one moving in the same direction as your own.If you have to hit a stationary object, try to hit a soft one.If you have to hit a hard object, hit it with a glancing blow.Avoid hitting pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists at all costs.
40Unintentional Injuries Cycling SafetyCurrently, more than 63 million Americans of all ages ride bicycles.The Consumer Product Safety Commission reports about 800 deaths per year from cycling accidents.Approximately 87 percent of fatal collisions were due to cyclists’ errors.Alcohol also plays a significant role in bicycle deaths and injuries.
41Unintentional Injuries Accident-Avoidance TechniquesWear a helmet.Don’t drink and ride.Follow traffic laws and ride with the flow of traffic.Wear light reflective clothing.Avoid riding after dark.Know and use proper hand signals.Keep your bicycle in good working condition.Use bike paths whenever possible.Stop at stop signs and traffic lights.