Key Concepts Effects of the Cold War on America’s Home life McCarthyism
Fear of Communist Influence At the height of WWII ~80,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist party Loyalty Review Board –Led by anti-Communist Republicans –Accused Truman of being soft –March 1947 – Truman set up the Fed. Loyalty Program Loyalty Review Board –Listed 91 “subversive” organizations –Investigated 3.2 million fed. Employees Dismissed 212 2,900 resigned Not allowed to see evidence against them
HUAC House Un-American Activities Committee –Started by investigating movie industry –Led by Richard Nixon –Friendly vs. unfriendly witnesses –Hollywood Ten McCarran Act –1950 - Passed by Congress –Unlawful to plan action that might led to totalitarianism –Vetoed by Truman –Overridden by Congress
Spy Cases Stun the Nation Alger Hiss –High level U.S. State Department official educated at Harvard University –Accused of espionage [spying] by Whittaker Chambers – former Communist Spy –Richard Nixon gained fame for pursuing Hiss with H.U.A.C. –Hiss went to prison for perjury since too much time had passed to be convicted of espionage [statute of limitation]. –1990s – Soviet cables released by the N.S.A. proved Hiss’s guilt.
Spy Cases Stun the Nation The Rosenbergs –Sept. 3, 1949 USSR exploded an Atomic Bomb –Klaus Fuchs, a nuclear physicist, admitted giving nuclear secrets to Soviets Implicated Ethel & Julius Rosenberg – minor activists for Communist Party –The Rosenbergs professed their innocence –They were convicted [found guilty] of treason on relatively weak and circumstantial evidence. –Executed via Electric Chair for Espionage in June 1953 leaving behind young children.
McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” Joseph McCarthy –Senator From Wisconsin –Became well known for making random unsupported accusations of communist affiliation. –“Name calling” in Senate was permitted due to congressional immunity from slander. –The mere accusations of communist affiliation ruined lives. Downfall –Accused several U.S. Army officials of communist affiliation –Televised hearings exposed the baseless and “cruelty” of his accusations –The nation became to realize that McCarthy was bully and “reckless” –Censured by Senate and died of liver disease
Anti-Communist Measures States passed laws making it illegal to advocate overthrow of government –Many civil rights groups believed such laws were a violation of constitutional rights [1 st Amendment] Loyalty oaths Law enforcement interrogation of Union leaders, librarians, newspaper reporters, & scientists Nobody was immune to investigation.
Brinkmanship 1949 – Soviets explode A- Bomb Race for the H-Bomb –67 times more powerful than Hiroshima –Nov. 1, 1952 – US 1 st to explode H-Bomb –Aug. 1953 – USSR explodes an H-Bomb –Thermonuclear weapon
Brinkmanship New Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower Sec. Of State John Foster Dulles –Very anti-communist –Promise to use all US force agnst communist nations to prevent spread –Promise to go to edge of all out war – Brinkmanship –Trimmed army & navy –Expanded air force –Buildup of nuclear arsenal –USSR followed suit School children practiced air-raid procedures, families built fall out shelters Next 30 yrs – fear of nuclear war
Brinkmanship Sec. of State- John Foster Dulles, helped to shape US foreign policy; he had been critical of Truman’s “Containment” policy which did not challenge the communist. Brinkmanship- Dulles proposed brinkmanship to discourage aggression by threatening to use all US force (the Bomb) against aggressor nations. Massive Retaliation- Dulles wanted to increase funding for Nuclear weapons, and cut back spending on conventional forces. In 1953, the US developed the Hydrogen bomb
Fallout Shelters were highly advertised in magazines and newspapers
Cold War Spreads Around the World Formation of CIA –Used spies Middle East & Latin America –Iran Nationalization of oil US backed Shah 1953 Shah returned to power – oil back in western hands
Warsaw Pact 1953 – Stalin Died USSR recognized West Germany 1955 – WG allowed to rearm & join NATO Made Soviets fearful so… –Formation of Warsaw Pact –Defensive alliance against NATO Geneva Summit –Ike offered “open skies” proposal –Soviets rejected it
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Pact, was an alliance set up under a mutual defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland, in 1955. The organization was the Soviet response to the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Warsaw Pact Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. The 1989 collapse of the Communist governments in Eastern Europe ended the pact.
The Suez War 1955 GB & US agreed to help Egypt finance construction of Aswan Dam Egyptian Pres. Gamal Abdel- Nasser –Tried to pit US vs. USSR –After find’g out about Nasser’s deals w/ Soviets Dulles w/d US offer Nasser nationalized the Canal Fr. & Brits outraged (they owned it)
The Suez War Affected Israel –Did not allow ships bound for or coming from Israel thru canal Israel sent in troops GB & Fr. Sent in troops –Seized Med. End of Canal UN stepped in & ended fighting Fr., GB, & Israel w/d, but Egypt kept canal
Eisenhower Doctrine Jan 1957 US would defend the Middle East agnst attack by any communist country
Hungarian Uprising Led by Imre Nagy Demanded Soviets leave Hungary Used Molotov cocktails Soviets response was harsh –Nov. 1956 –Tanks rolled into Hungary & killed ~30,000 Hungarians –Nagy – executed –~200,000 Hungarians fled to west –US did nothing to help –UN could do nothing due to Soviet veto
Cold War in the Skies After Stalin – new Soviet leader was Nikita Khrushchev –Favored policy of peaceful coexistence Space Race –Oct 4, 1957 –Sputnik –US shocked & poured $$$ into space program –Creation of NASA –Jan. 31, 1958 – 1 st US satellite in space
Cold War in the Skies U-2 Incident –CIA began secret high altitude flights over USSR –Used U-2 plane –1960 US nervous about U-2 program Why? –Nobody knew about it –Soviets knew about them in ’58 –Eisenhower wanted flights ended –Dulles authorized 1 last flight May 1, 1960 Pilot Gary Powers Shot down by Soviet planes Parachuted into Soviet lands –Caught & jailed for 2 yrs
Renewed Confrontation Khrushchev demanded apology & promise to stop flights Eisenhower agreed to stop flights but did not apologize Khrushchev called off May 16 summit B/C of U-2 incident the 60s opened w/ tension as great as ever