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The History of Chemical Agents 2000 B.C. - 2005 A.D.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Chemical Agents 2000 B.C. - 2005 A.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Chemical Agents 2000 B.C A.D.

2 2300 B.C. The Chinese Army made use of chemical agents:  Used pots of burning red pepper and oil.  Used ground pepper in rice paper bags.

3 431 B.C. Peloponnesian Wars Wood was saturated with sulfur and pitch. A burning smoke was produced. Results were: 1. Disorientation 2. Eye closure 3. Choking

4 673 A.D. “Greek Fire” Ingredients: Sulfur, quick-lime, pitch, and petroleum. Results: This mixture would burn on top of water. It would cause choking and skin irritation.

5 1300 A.D. Siege of Taratine, Italy First documented use of bacteriological warfare. 1. 2,000 cartloads of horse manure were used to produce foul odor, flies, and disease. 2. Later, dead bodies were used to produce plague.

6 1864 Civil War First use of chemical agent on U.S. soil. Siege of Charleston, S.C. Confederate troops used wood saturated with sulfur, burning it to produce a choking smoke. A plan by Federal troops to use Chlorine gas to retake the fort was not used.

7 1869 Discovery of “CN” German Chemist Graebe CN was a lacrimator and became known as “weeping gas”. Later, it was called “tear gas”. It was not used for about 40 years.

8 1912 Civil Disorder in Paris *First documented use of chemical agents by law enforcement. *French Police load “CN” (EthylBromacetate) into military 37mm grenades. Riotous crowds were successfully dispersed.

9 1913 Germans discover “DM” Diphenylaminechlorarsine  Sickening Agent  Licorice odor  Pyrotechnic delivery

10 1915 April 22, 1915 in Northern France, Germans use chlorine gas causing 7,000 allied casualties. The French loaded CN into mortar shells as a “harassing agent”. Later, both sides used chlorine, phosgene and mustard gas.

11 1915

12 1916 Gas Masks rushed to the front Developed from mining technology Battlefield tested and developed

13 1918 Edgewood Arsenal refined DM Major Roger Adams Known as “Adamsite gas”

14 1920 “OC” Tincture Oleoresin Capsicum Developed at Edgewood Arsenal by U.S. Army Not used until the 1980’s. All natural, non-synthetic. Thought to be less effective than CN

15 1928 “CS” Orthochlorobenzalmalononitrile U.S.Chemists Carson and Sloughton develop it patented by British, 1961 used by British on Cyprus, Presently most used chemical agent by Law Enforcement.

16 1930 Acme Gas Axe

17 1954 LAPD

18

19 1958 UN bans DM as war gas U.S. does not comply with ban U.S. still stockpiles DM

20 1960 M-17 Gas Mask U.S. Army developed mask that would filter CS particles at 1-10 microns. (1 micron = 1/25,000 inch) Filter types –Green = Riot Agents –Black = Biological –Gold = Radioactive

21 1962 “CR” Developed by U.S.Army –Higginbottom and Suchitsky Tested and used by British Used by U.S. military police Hand-held aerosol containers loaded by Federal Labs

22 1965 Mace Manufactured by General Ordinance (G.O.E.C).9-1% CN in a petroleum-based carrying agent. Was most used agent in world.

23 1969 Tear Gas Act of California Initiated after the death of LA Times news reporter Reuben Salazar Regulated by DOJ –Sales –Transportation –Use –Training

24 1969 Ferret Rounds AAI Corp. introduces 12-gauge liquid frangible shell. CN & CS mm shell mm shell 1991 OC ferrets Powder payloads

25 1974 U.S. Army approves CR as riot-control agent

26 1976 Aberdeen Proving Grounds tests new mask Forerunner of MCU-2P (Mickey Two)

27 1982 OC Discovered in 1920 Edgewood Arsenal Re-discovered and introduced by Lucky Police Products in Florida Marketed as “Cap Stun”

28 1983 MCU - 2P New Mask: Mickey Two Standardized quick change filters to NATO spec 1st 10,000 to USAF in 1983 by MSI Corp. Filters-chemical, biological, radioactive

29 1984 SDSO Reintroduces Gas Axe Lake Erie Chemical Company

30 1985 Burn Box Introduced by San Diego Police SWAT Military Spec. Ammo Can with Ports

31 1986 OSHA/NIOSH Regulations clarified 29 CFR APR Standards Military type masks not approved

32 1990 OC Def-Tec reintroduces OC nationwide: –Use is restricted by CA DOJ –Availability in California to be determined by Environmental Health Services.

33 1991 M-40 GAS MASK Combined M-17 and MCU-2P U.S. Marines issued new mask Later issued to all branches of the military

34 Model R&M 40mm Launcher

35 1992 OC CA DOJ issues provisional use for 180 days: –Extended to 1995 –Two products: Def-Tec and Cap-Stun –Law Enforcement Only

36 1994 OC DOJ approves use by citizens As of March 1, 1994 citizens can carry OC with proper training DEF-TEC has only legal product in California

37 1996 DOJ DEREGULATES CHEMICAL AGENTS IN CALIFORNIA Citizen certification program halted Citizen use restricted to aerosols less than 2.5 oz Unrestricted use by law enforcement

38 SA200 Rifle Multiple versions OC powder Jaycor Tactical Systems PepperBall 1999

39 2000 Gas Ram

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41 Gas Ram Deployment Visible Persistent Measured Dose

42 2001 Fit Testing for gas masks/APRs Qualitative Testing/Smell Test Quantitative Testing/Instrument Rating

43 2001 Gilbert Arizona Home-made gas ram kills Sgt. Tom Hontz during training exercise in Arizona

44 Gas Axe Explodes Smoke Grenade Ports Blocked Poor Design

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46 Aluminum Burn Safe Flame Trap

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48 2001 FN Herstal introduces FN 303

49 2001 Penn Arms GL-1 40mm Mil-spec 40mm Shot Launcher

50 2001 Penn Arms GL-6 40mm Mil-spec 40mm Shot Launcher

51 2002 Remotec Robot

52 Remotec Robot with GL-6 40mm Launcher


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