Presentation on theme: "The History of Chemical Agents 2000 B.C. - 2005 A.D."— Presentation transcript:
The History of Chemical Agents 2000 B.C A.D.
2300 B.C. The Chinese Army made use of chemical agents: Used pots of burning red pepper and oil. Used ground pepper in rice paper bags.
431 B.C. Peloponnesian Wars Wood was saturated with sulfur and pitch. A burning smoke was produced. Results were: 1. Disorientation 2. Eye closure 3. Choking
673 A.D. “Greek Fire” Ingredients: Sulfur, quick-lime, pitch, and petroleum. Results: This mixture would burn on top of water. It would cause choking and skin irritation.
1300 A.D. Siege of Taratine, Italy First documented use of bacteriological warfare. 1. 2,000 cartloads of horse manure were used to produce foul odor, flies, and disease. 2. Later, dead bodies were used to produce plague.
1864 Civil War First use of chemical agent on U.S. soil. Siege of Charleston, S.C. Confederate troops used wood saturated with sulfur, burning it to produce a choking smoke. A plan by Federal troops to use Chlorine gas to retake the fort was not used.
1869 Discovery of “CN” German Chemist Graebe CN was a lacrimator and became known as “weeping gas”. Later, it was called “tear gas”. It was not used for about 40 years.
1912 Civil Disorder in Paris *First documented use of chemical agents by law enforcement. *French Police load “CN” (EthylBromacetate) into military 37mm grenades. Riotous crowds were successfully dispersed.
1915 April 22, 1915 in Northern France, Germans use chlorine gas causing 7,000 allied casualties. The French loaded CN into mortar shells as a “harassing agent”. Later, both sides used chlorine, phosgene and mustard gas.
1916 Gas Masks rushed to the front Developed from mining technology Battlefield tested and developed
1918 Edgewood Arsenal refined DM Major Roger Adams Known as “Adamsite gas”
1920 “OC” Tincture Oleoresin Capsicum Developed at Edgewood Arsenal by U.S. Army Not used until the 1980’s. All natural, non-synthetic. Thought to be less effective than CN
1928 “CS” Orthochlorobenzalmalononitrile U.S.Chemists Carson and Sloughton develop it patented by British, 1961 used by British on Cyprus, Presently most used chemical agent by Law Enforcement.
1930 Acme Gas Axe
1958 UN bans DM as war gas U.S. does not comply with ban U.S. still stockpiles DM
1960 M-17 Gas Mask U.S. Army developed mask that would filter CS particles at 1-10 microns. (1 micron = 1/25,000 inch) Filter types –Green = Riot Agents –Black = Biological –Gold = Radioactive
1962 “CR” Developed by U.S.Army –Higginbottom and Suchitsky Tested and used by British Used by U.S. military police Hand-held aerosol containers loaded by Federal Labs
1965 Mace Manufactured by General Ordinance (G.O.E.C).9-1% CN in a petroleum-based carrying agent. Was most used agent in world.
1969 Tear Gas Act of California Initiated after the death of LA Times news reporter Reuben Salazar Regulated by DOJ –Sales –Transportation –Use –Training