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Main Idea and Details. What is a Main Idea? A Main Idea is : A general statement about the WHOLE passage that contains the TOPIC.

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Presentation on theme: "Main Idea and Details. What is a Main Idea? A Main Idea is : A general statement about the WHOLE passage that contains the TOPIC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Main Idea and Details

2 What is a Main Idea? A Main Idea is : A general statement about the WHOLE passage that contains the TOPIC.

3 What is ….Topic?? A topic is: Who or what the whole selection is about The topic is a word or phrase…not a complete sentence To find the topic ask yourself, “In general, who or what is this WHOLE paragraph about?”

4 What is a Main Idea? A Main Idea is : A general statement about the WHOLE passage that contains the TOPIC.

5 UNLOCKING THE MYSTERY OF MAIN IDEA First--Find the topic

6 (1) Actors are nervous before a play. (2)Politicians are nervous before they give a campaign speech. (3)Athletes are nervous before a big game. (4)Surveys show that 76 percent of experienced speakers, such as novelists and lecturers, have stage fright before taking the floor. (5)In other words, it is perfectly normal to be nervous at the start of a speech. (6)Your body is responding as it normally would to any stressful situation—by producing more adrenaline. (7)This sudden shot of adrenaline is what makes your heart race, your hands shake, your knees knock, and your skin perspire.

7 (1)In almost every society in the world, couples have become engaged in some way before marrying. (2)Engagement serves a variety of functions for the couple. (3)It provides a clear indication that marriage is about to occur. (4)Due to the exclusive nature of the relationship, personal and interpersonal testing can continue with less threat from competitive forces. (5)A more thorough awareness of shared and nonshared values, marital-role expectations, and future aspirations can be examined. (6)Engagement provides the final opportunity prior to the legal union for each person to understand himself or herself in relation to the other. (7)It is likely that many couples view an engagement as a kind of trial marriage, including sexual intimacy, the sharing of certain financial obligations, and, in some instances, living together.

8  Stated Main Idea is found within the text  Implied Main Idea must be created by the reader using hints and clues in the passage.

9 (1)When Chevrolet began to sell its Nova cars in Latin America, hardly anyone would buy them. (2)The company finally learned that Spanish speakers read the car’s name as the Spanish phrase “no va,” meaning “doesn’t go”! (3)Like Chevrolet, many American companies have learned the hard way that they need to know their customers’ language. (4)When Pepsi-Cola ran its “Come Alive with Pepsi” ads in China, the consumers laughed. (5)The company had not translated its slogan quite right. (6)In Chinese, it came out as “Pepsi brings your ancestors back from the dead.”

10 ___ 1. (1)Dolphins use a process called sonar to find their way and to find food. (2)They emit sound waves that bounce off objects and return, giving the dolphin information about distance, size, and density. (3)Some scientists think the dolphins can even “turn up” these sound waves and stun their prey. (4)They know that certain levels of sound waves could easily kill a large squid in a matter of minutes. (5)If these scientists are correct, dolphins could easily kill each other—yet they don’t. A. Sea animals have wonderful skills at their disposal. B. Dolphins do not kill each other. C. Dolphin sonar is a powerful tool that appears to be used with skill and care. D. Sonar enables dolphins to find their way around by providing information on distance, size, and density.

11 What’s the topic? (1)Snoring is the number-one complaint in marriages all around the world. (2)The honks, hoots, and snorts created by snorers annoy their mates and deprive them of sleep. (3)Fortunately, there are some means of preventing snoring. (4)First, the snorer should avoid breathing through his mouth. (5)Mouth-breathing can be discouraged if the snorer sleeps on his side with his forearm under his chin—effectively pressing his mouth shut. (6)Second, the snorer should increase the humidity in his bedroom. (7)A humidifier or even a pot of water in the room may help. (8)In addition, snoring may disappear if an overweight snorer loses some pounds. (9)And finally, a snorer should avoid drinking alcohol in the evening.

12 A.Snoring B. Marriage Problems C. Preventing snoring What’s the topic?

13 a.Snoring is the number-one complaint in marriages all around the world b. There are several ways of preventing snoring c. Mouth-breathing can be discouraged if people sleep on their side with their forearm under their chin—effectively pressing their mouth shut. d.. A snorer should avoid drinking alcohol in the evening. What is the Main Idea ?

14 Research suggests ways in which parents can encourage creativity in children. One way is to provide a stimulating environment. As much as possible, the environment should be designed to match a child’s special interests and talents. Second, teach by focusing on a child’s strengths. Avoid criticizing his or her weaknesses. Another important method is to encourage nonconforming behavior. You can do this by helping your children avoid or resist peer pressure. Fourth, set an example by pursuing interesting work or intellectual or artistic hobbies. Finally, do not use rigid control over children. Children who are constantly directed seem to lose the confidence needed for the creative spirit. Topic? A.Research B.Creativity in children C.Creativity

15 A. One way is to increase a child’s creativity is to provide a stimulating environment. B. Children who are constantly directed seem to lose the confidence needed for the creative spirit. C. Research suggests that there are many ways in which parents can encourage creativity in children. D. You can increase children’s creativity by helping them avoid peer pressure.

16 Theory A Main Idea is a general statement that incorporates all details. This statement must contain the topic. A main idea without a topic is like a Whataburger with no meat! Topic detail Main Idea

17  Key words that SOMETIMES (not always) let you know a main idea is coming:  In conclusion  Thus  In other words  However  If the passage is discussing a study, research, survey, or experiment, the main idea will be the results or the outcome of that study

18 The Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia, has conducted a wide-scale survey in eleven states to determine teenagers’ knowledge about AIDS. Half of the teens surveyed believe a person can get AIDS through giving blood. Almost three-quarters of teenagers think that AIDS can be gotten from a simple blood test. And half believe that the disease can be easily contracted from a public toilet. None of these beliefs is well-founded. A. According to one survey, many teens have a poor understanding of how people get AIDS. B. The Center for Disease Control conducted a survey to discover teens’ knowledge about AIDS. C. Teenagers have a poor understanding of sexually transmitted diseases.

19 Before they can say any words, babies communicate by making a variety of sounds. They start by crying. Then they progress to cooing when they are happy, squealing, gurgling, and making long “oohs” and “aahs.” At about six months they babble, repeating syllables such as “buh” and “muh.” Next they start to imitate sounds they hear, even though they don’t seem to understand these sounds. At the next stage, they string such sounds together in a way that is almost speechlike. At about age 1, they say their first meaningful word—usually “mama” or “dada.” Soon they use many words, and at about eighteen months they begin to make combinations of words, forming simple sentences. A.Babies are able to communicate before they can actually speak. B. Babies coo and babble when they are happy. C. Babies learn to speak in several stages.

20 According to scientists, cockroaches evolved about 300 million years ago, which means they saw the dinosaurs come and go and later watched people emerge on Earth. If you wonder how such little creatures have lasted so long, consider the fact that they can live in a refrigerator or in extreme heat. They can develop resistance to poisons faster than scientists can develop new ones. And they can live for two months on water alone or go for five months without water. Furthermore, they are quick to escape from danger. The takeoff time for a threatened cockroach has been timed at 54/1000th of a second. A.Cockroaches evolved about 300 million years ago. B. Cockroaches can live in a wide variety of temperatures and quickly develop resistance to poisons. C. Cockroaches have survived for millions of years because they can adapt to a wide variety of circumstances and react quickly to danger.

21 Imagine a beam of light many billions of times more concentrated than the sunlight focused by a magnifying glass. A beam so intense that it will burn a hole in a steel plate, or even through a diamond, the hardest natural material known to man. Such a beam can be produced by a modern source of light called a laser. Laser light is used for communication, for extremely accurate measurements, for surgery and dentistry, and for many different purposes in engineering and science. a. Laser light can be made from sunlight b. Laser light can be used for communication, for extremely accurate measurements, for surgery and dentistry, and for many different purposes in engineering and science c. A laser is an intense form of light that has many valuable uses d. Laser beams can burn holes through very hard surfaces.

22 Pesticides kill plants and animals other than the pests they are intended for. Pesticides pollute water systems. Some pests develop immunity to frequently used pesticides. Some pesticides such as DDT and its relatives can remain in the environment for many years beyond the time necessary to do their intended job. Some pesticides have been linked to cancer and other health problems in humans. A.Some pesticides have been linked to cancer and other health problems B.Pesticides can be very harmful. C.Pesticides kill plants and animals other than the pests they are intended for. D.They can be very dangerous to both people and the environment.

23 2 Steps to choosing the Correct the Main Idea 1.Does it have the TOPIC? 2.Is it about the WHOLE passage? WHOLE TOPIC

24 A major study of firstborn children reveals that they tend to be super-achievers who strive very hard to make their families proud. 2 It was discovered that of the country’s first twenty-three astronauts, an amazing twenty-one were firstborn in their families. 3 Also, slightly more than half—52 percent—of our presidents were firstborn children. 4 Less positive is the fact that firstborns are under a lot of pressure to succeed, because their families often pin their hopes and dreams on them. 5 Also, as the eldest, they are expected to “set an example” for their younger brothers and sisters. 6 Furthermore, these firstborns sometimes have trouble with personal relationships because they learned to be very independent and to enjoy doing things on their own—since they were the only children in their families until their younger brothers and sisters were born. 7 The conclusion of the study is that being a firstborn child is a mixed blessing, having positive as well as some negative aspects.

25 1 In the late 1980s, concern about the deadly effects of illegal drugs became a top national issue. 2 Politicians loudly proclaimed a “war on drugs,” and TV news shows carried regular reports about the fatal toll of drugs, especially “crack” cocaine. 3 These drugs do have a terrible effect on individuals and society, but the facts about them are somewhat different from their popular image. 4 Each year, about two thousand people die from heroin overdoses, and about three thousand die from cocaine-related causes. 5 At the same time, 50,000 people die every year because of alcohol—including thousands of innocent victims of drunk drivers. 6 Additionally, a third of a million people die every year from cancer due to smoking cigarettes. A. In the late 1980s, politicians proclaimed a “war on drugs.” B. Our “war on drugs” ignores the two deadliest (though legal) drugs, alcohol and tobacco. C. Thousands of people die each year from heroin overdoses and cocaine- related causes. D. More people die each year from alcohol-related causes than from cocaine related causes.

26 1. Define Main Idea. 2. What is the difference between Stated Main Idea and Implied Main Idea? 3. Define Topic. 4. What question do you ask yourself when looking for the topic? 5. Explain the difference between topic, main idea, and details 6. What are the 2 steps to choosing the correct Main Idea?

27 Supporting Details

28  A detail proves (or supports) the Main Idea. It is a small bit of information from the paragraph

29 detail Main idea A bunch of these make one of these

30  Prove (or support) the Main Idea  Are small bits of information from the paragraph

31  Reasons  Examples  Facts  Steps  Causes  Advantages /disadvantages  Descriptions

32  One  First of all  Secondly  Finally  Furthermore  Next  Another  Also  In addition  For example  For instance  Last of all  The final…

33  If a sentence is a detail, then it cannot be the main idea!

34 Details:  Kids get to dress up and pretend on Halloween night  Kids gather lots of yummy candy to eat from going door to door on Halloween  Some children have been poisoned with Halloween candy.  Older children get to spend time with their friends during Halloween

35 Which of the following statements best supports the writer’s assertion that “during the 1920’s, intelligence tests were used to prevent many Europeans and others from immigrating to the United States”?

36 Author’s / writer’s  opinion  view  assertion  contention  argument “supports……that”

37 Which of the following statements best supports the writer’s assertion that “during the 1920’s, intelligence tests were used to prevent many Europeans and others from immigrating to the United States”? What proves

38 Which of the following statements best supports the writer’s assertion that these people just graduated? AA. They all look very excited BB. They are posing for a picture CC. They are wearing graduation caps and gowns

39 Which of the following statements best supports the author’s point of view that this picture of the Beatles was taken in the 60’s?  A. The Beatles are the best musicians that ever lived.  B. The clothes and hair fashion are typical of the 1960’s.  C. Today, there are only 2 surviving members of the original Beatles. What proves

40 A.Sesame Street has been on the air for over 35 years. B.For the third year in a row, Sesame Street was first in TV ratings nationwide. C.Sesame Street is designed for children 18months to 10 years of age.

41 A. A 6.9% raise was approved. B.The board announced its intent to follow through with a 3 year pay raise plan. C.Grumbling and complaining was audible among the faculty as soon as the board announced its decision.

42 Which of the following statements best supports the writer’s assertion that alcohol has a negative effect on domestic violence? A. Alcohol is by far the most destructive drug in American culture. B. Social workers report that alcohol is a factor in nearly half of their domestic violence cases. C. Alcohol, in the form of drinking and driving, is the number one killer of teenagers.


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