Presentation on theme: "AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice Chapter 6 - Policing: Issues and Challenges."— Presentation transcript:
AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice Chapter 6 - Policing: Issues and Challenges
Issues in Policing Certain issues hold special interest and concerns for today’s police administrators and officers – Inherent Dangers – Stress – Use-of-Force/Lethal Force – Civil Liability – Multiculturalism
Police Subculture & Personality Subculture – Informal values that characterize the police force as a distinct community with common goals Working Personality – Traditional values and behaviors – Socialized into police culture – Often extends to officers’ personal lives
Corruption – The abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain – Historical existence of corruption? Knapp Commission – A committee that investigated police corruption in New York City in the early 1970s – Established two types of corrupt officers Grass Eaters Meat Eaters Is money at the root of corruption?
Building Integrity Law Enforcement Oath of Honor (page 199) How does LE create and maintain integrity within its profession? – Hiring standards – Academy & continuing training Internal Affairs – The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoing involving members of the department
Drug and Alcohol Use IACP Drug-Testing Recommendations – All applicants/recruits – Employees showing performance difficulties indicating possible drug/alcohol problems – Employees involved with excessive force – Employees involved with IOD – Routine testing of special assignments such as Narcotics or Vice
Inherent Dangers of Police Work Violence – 156 officers killed in line of duty (2005) Gunfire = 52 Automobile Accident = 33 Heart Attack = 17 Vehicular Assault = 15 Risk of disease and infection – Biological agents, blood-borne pathogens, etc. Stress and Fatigue – Shift-work, diet, OT, etc.
Police Civil Liability Liability – Responsibility for damages caused by officer/department 1983 Lawsuits – Based on § 1983, Title 42, US Code – Filed in Federal Court Bivens Action – Liability action against federal officials
Major Sources of Civil Liability Failure to protect property in custody Negligent care of in- custody suspects Failure to render proper medical first-aid Lack of due regard for public safety False arrest or imprisonment Excessive force Violation of constitutional rights Racial Profiling
Racial Profiling and Biased Policing Racial Profiling – Any police-initiated action that relies on the subject’s race, ethnicity, or national origin – Same as racism? Racial Profiling vs. Criminal Profiling? – Civil rights violation vs. good police work POST training mandates – ~100,000 officers statewide – 5 hours initial training – Main goal = individual-officer introspection
Cultural Awareness Training helps to identify individual prejudices Four stages: – Clarifying the relationship between cultural awareness and police professionalism – Recognizing personal prejudices – Acquiring sensitivity to police-community relations – Developing interpersonal-relations skills
Use of Force Police Use-of-Force – The use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public Use-of-Force Continuum – Department Policy, Training, etc. – Ladder, Steps, Elevator, Wheel… Excessive Force – The application of an amount or frequency of force greater than that required to gain compliance from a willing or unwilling subject
Lethal Force Level of force likely to cause death or great bodily injury Tennessee vs. Garner (1985) – Lethal force upon fleeing felon only if serious threat of injury or death to public or officer and deadly force necessary to affect arrest Graham vs. Connor (1989) – Established “objective reasonableness” standard – Appropriateness of force should be judged from perspective of reasonable officer in that situation
Lethal-Force Policy Elements Common elements of deadly-force policies… – Defense of Life Officer’s or another’s – Fleeing Felony Suspect If escape likely to result in imminent danger of death/GBI – Verbal Warnings Should be given if not jeopardizing safety – Warning Shots Generally discouraged – Moving Vehicles Not to disable vehicle, at driver/occupants only if imminent death/GBI and does not cause overriding danger
Less-Lethal Force Less-Lethal Weapons – Weapons designed/intended to disable, capture, or immobilize – but not kill – a suspect – Not Non-lethal! Could cause unintentional death or serious injury Examples – Baton – Pepper Spray/Pepperball – Tasers/Stun Guns – Beanbag Projectiles – Rubber Bullets – Snare Nets
Education and Training P.O.S.T. – Peace Officer Standards and Training www.post.ca.gov – Official state/legislative program that sets law enforcement training standards 832 PC Basic Academies Continuing Professional Training Perishable-Skills Program
Recruitment and Selection Benefits of hiring educated officers – Report writing skills – Communication skills – Effective job performance – Fewer citizen complaints – Increased initiative – Wise use of discretion – Fewer discipline issues – Heightened awareness of multiculturalism
Professionalism and Ethics Professionalism – The increasing formalization of police work and the accompanying rise in public acceptance of the police Ethics – The special responsibility to adhere to moral duty and obligation inherent in police work Law Enforcement Code of Ethics (p. 226)
Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Policing Women currently represent ~13% of all sworn officers – 4.8% are women of color – Between 1990−2001, women’s ranks increased from 9% to 13% – Women hold 7.3% of sworn top-command law enforcement positions – Women will not achieve equal representation within 70 years Consent Decrees mandating the hiring/promotion of women and minorities are the significant factor in women’s gains
Women as Effective Police Officers Research on female police officers – Extremely devoted to their work – See themselves as women first and then police officers – Are more satisfied when working in non-uniformed categories Two groups of female officers – Those who feel themselves to be well integrated and confident – Those who experience strain and on-the-job isolation
Increasing the Number of Minorities and Women in Police Work Police Foundation recommendations – Involve underrepresented groups in affirmative action and long-term planning programs – Encourage development of an open system of promotions for women and racial/ethnic minorities – Use periodic audits to ensure that female officers are not being underutilized
Private Protective Services – Independent commercial organizations that provide protective services to employers on a contractual basis Major reasons for rapid growth of private policing – Increase in workplace crimes – Increase in fear-of-crime and terrorism – Fiscal crises of the states – Increased public and business awareness More cost-effective private-security services Impact on traditional Law Enforcement?
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