Presentation on theme: "London Ambulance Service International Cooperation Visit To Croatia Introduction To Taser David Llewellyn Specialist Firearms Command."— Presentation transcript:
London Ambulance Service International Cooperation Visit To Croatia Introduction To Taser David Llewellyn Specialist Firearms Command
History of Taser Taser stands for Thomas A Swifts Electronic Rifle It was developed between 1966-1974 by Jack H. Cover 7 Watt ‘stun’ system prototypes produced in 1974. 26 Watt M26 Taser system was introduced in 1999 July 2001 The Home Office prioritised research into M26 Taser NMI devices. November 2001 The M26 Advanced Taser was approved for UK trials. In Sept 2004 the M26 was approved for all UK Police Firearms Officers.
April 2005 the newly developed X26 Taser was approved for UK police use. July 2007 the Home Office extends the current Taser deployment guidelines for all UK firearms officers. History of Taser In The UK September 2007, Home Office approves a unique UK trial of Taser deployment by specialist (non firearms) units in ten force areas.
How does Taser Operate? Taser works by discharging a pair of probes from an electrical device at an intended subject up to 6.4m (21ft) away. The probes which contain sharp barbs create a circuit by both probes connecting to clothing or by penetration of the skin. 50,000 volts are then passed through the conducting wire into the subject.
How Does Taser affect the Human Body ? Taser over rides neuromuscular control by disrupting the body’s motor nerves required for maintaining posture and balance. Effective Taser deployment causes Neuro Muscular Incapacitation (NMI) and uniquely does not rely solely on pain compliance. NB: A minimum 4” probe spread is required for effective NMI
Drive Stun Mode For effective drive stun officers are taught to target major muscle/nerve groups. Brachial plexus tie-in (upper chest) Radial (forearm) Common peronial (Outside of thigh) Tibial (calf muscle) Drive stun alone does NOT create NMI and relies mainly on pain compliance
The risk of death from immediate or delayed consequences of electro physiological phenomena resulting directly from current flow in the body is low, and is certainly very much lower than the use of conventional firearms. DOMILL is not aware of any deaths arising from the primary or secondary consequences of Taser use Defence Scientific Advisory Committee on The Medical implications of Less Lethal Weapons (DOMILL Report 4/11/02) of Less Lethal Weapons (DOMILL Report 4/11/02) Is Taser Safe? DOMILL have recently identified there is a slightly higher risk of Taser causing cardiac arrhythmia in persons of very small stature and small children.
X26 Taser Statistics Since June 2007 there have been 326 recorded Taser discharges. 272 reported Taser Probe discharges 20 resulted in no reported incapacitation 54 Drive Stun discharges 8 resulted in no reported incapacitation
Communication Negotiation Defensive Tactics Public Order Shields Batons Incapacitant Sprays Taser Do Nothing Firearms Dogs Taser, One Of Many Options Available To Officers
Aftercare Officers are trained to verbally reassure subject - this will aide recovery/mitigate against hyper-ventilation. Probes which are clearly embedded in the subjects clothes may be removed by officers at the scene. Probes that are embedded in the skin, should be removed by a medical professional. Unless probes must be removed due to operational necessity. (subject could use them as a weapon). If necessary break the wires close to the probes to avoid trailing wires. Secure cartridge and probes as evidence and record any injuries and damage.
Where a subject is hit in the face, eyes or genitals Or is discovered to have a pre-existing cardiac condition, Or implanted electrical medical device that might lead to increased medical risk they must be Immediately referred to hospital preferably by the London Ambulance Service. Aftercare
Aftercare Close monitoring of the subject throughout the period following application of the Taser is vital, Subjects do not have to be conveyed to Hospital, the requirement it that they see a doctor. This may be a Police Doctor. If the subject is detained in a cell, they should be subject to enhanced supervision in line with those who have consumed alcohol or drugs If there are any signs of: Adverse or unusual medical reactions Pre existing medical condition Drug / Alcohol misuse Mental illness Extreme violence (acute behavioral disorder) Positional asphyxia Medical assistance should be provided immediately, If necessary this must be given precedence over taking to a Police Station.