Criminal Justice System Three Parts:Three Parts: Police Courts Correction s http://www.unl.edu/crimjust/images/school_brochure.jpg
Police Local State Federal Sheriff or town Police –Preserving order, enforcing court orders, and patrolling areas Police or Highway Patrol –Patrol Highways and enforcing state laws FBI, ATF, Marshals –Enforcing federal laws and assisting local authorities. http://www.odmp.org/patch.php?id=3164&s=150 http://cannazine.co.uk/images/sto ries/courtsand%20police/calif- highway-patrol.jpg http://www.californiacriminallawyerblog.com/fbi_logo.gif
Arrest sArrest s Arrest Warrant Decide Level of Force Reading of Rights –Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)– Counsel if Cannot Afford –Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)- Counsel Present During Questioning –Miranda v. Arizona (1966)– Miranda Warnings
Courts Plea Bargaining –90% of convictions are obtained through a plea bargain http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/rma/lowres/rman6210l.jpg
United Learning. "Part One: The Trial." Discovery Education: http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
Corrections Probation Imprisonmen t Guilty of an offense –but remain free under supervision –60% of all persons convicted of crimes Supervision under confined conditions –Prisons – State/federal institutions serve a year or more (Felonies) –Jail – County/local institutions where await trial or serve less than one year (misdemeanors) http://prison-penpals.com/knowledge-against-prison1.gif
Parole Capital Punishment Early release from prison. Parole Board – Determines if and when a prisoner will be released Death Penalty(36 States) http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2007/11/16/majc hamberofdeath_wideweb__470x321,0.jpg
Juvenil e Crime Young offenders, ranging from under 16 to 21 depending on the state http://www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/rootimages/supjuv.JPG
Amendments 4 th 5 th 6 th Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. Protects the rights of accused persons, Due Process Provides the right to a speedy, fair trial
7 th 8 th 11 th 14 th Provides the right to a fair trial by a jury in civil suits Prohibits excessive bail and fines, prohibits cruel and unusual punishment Lawsuits against States legal Protects the rights of accused persons, Due Process
U.S. Executions Since 1976 1,064 convicted murderers have been executedSince the death penalty was reinstated in 1976, 1,064 convicted murderers have been executed in the United States. (As of March, 2007) 11 were femaleOf those executed, 11 were female. (The last was Frances Elaine Newton in Texas on September 14, 2005). 22 were under the age of 18 at the time of the murderOf those executed, 22 were under the age of 18 at the time of the murder. (The last was Scott Allen Hain in Oklahoma on April 3, 2003). (58%) were white(34%) were blackOf those executed, 613 (58%) were white and 367 (34%) were black. (84%)lethal injection 153 were executed by electric chair 11 were executed by gas chamber 3 were executed by hanging 2 were executed by firing squadOf those executed: 895 (84%) were executed by lethal injection, including 409 of the last 413 executions. 153 were executed by electric chair (The last was Brandon Hedrick in Virginia on July 20, 2006). 11 were executed by gas chamber (The last was Walter LeGrand in Arizona on March 3, 1999). 3 were executed by hanging (The last was Billy Bailey in Delaware on January 25, 1996). 2 were executed by firing squad (The last was John Albert Taylor in Utah on January 27, 1996). 32 different statesExecutions were held in 32 different states: 385 (36%) were in Texas and 17 were in Indiana. There are currently 3,344 on death row. Only 50 are women. After suspending executions in Illinois, this is one of the reasons Gov. Ryan gave.
Lethal injection was originally proposed as a means of execution in 1888 in New York, but the state chose electrocution instead. In 1977, Oklahoma became the first state to adopt lethal-injection legislation. Five years later, Texas performed the first execution by lethal injection. Of the 37 U.S. states that have a death penalty, 34 use lethal injection as the primary form of execution. The U.S. federal government and the U.S. military also use lethal injection.
States where the death penalty is illegal States where the death penalty is legal Top 5 death-penalty states, accounting for 66% of all U.s. executions since 1976 States with the death penalty on the books but no executions since 1976 New Mexico became the latest State to ban capital punishment. 37 people were executed in the U.S. in 2008, the most in the world, after China, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.
State Used from/to No. electrocuted Alabama1927-1965153 Arkansas1913-1964169 Connecticut1937-196018 Dist. of Columbia1928-195750 Florida1924-1964197 Georgia1924-1964417 Illinois1928-196298 Indiana1914-196159 Kentucky1911-1962171 Louisiana1941-196168 Massachusetts1901-194765 Mississippi1940-195476 Nebraska1920- 195512 New jersey1907-1963160 New Mexico1933-19567 New York 1890-1963695 North Carolina1910-1938167 Ohio1897-1963315 Oklahoma1915-196683 Pennsylvania1915-1962350 South Carolina1912-1962241 South Dakota19471 Tennessee1916-1960125 Texas1924-1964361 Vermont1919-19545 Virginia1908-1962236 West Virginia1951-19599 Total1890-19664,308 1977 – 2006 During the period 1977 – 2006 a further 151 men & 2 women have been electrocuted in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Nebraska, SC, and Virginia. Grand total 1890-20064,461 Electrocution by state 1890-1966 Florida’s new oak electric chair-1998