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Presentation on theme: "CAREER COUNSELLING IN CROSS-CULTURAL EUROPEAN SPACE, KLAIPEDA 2005 Youth’s ’ Dillemmas Anna Paszkowska-Rogacz."— Presentation transcript:


2 Project genesis Project PL/03/C/P/RF-94150 : „The impact of cultural differences on students' expectations from job counselors”

3 Project partners 1.Abif – Analyse, Beratung und Interdisziplinäre Forschung Austria 2. - Vienna, Austria Cyprus 3.Research and Consultancy Institute (RCI) – Lemesos, Cyprus Lithuania 4.Klaipėdos Socialinių Mokslų Kolegija – Klaipeda, Lithuania Sweden 5.Lund University – Lund, Sweden Great Britain 6.Academy of Learning - Herts, Great Britain Lodz, Poland 7.Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna – Lodz, Poland

4 Gert Hofstede study 1967 – 1997  CULTURE is the collective programming of the mind which distinguished the members of one group category of people from another  DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE: 1.Power distance 2.Collectivism vs individualism 3.Femininity vs masculinity 4.Incertainity avoidance 5.(Long- term and short-term orientation)  AREAS OF CULTURE MANIFESTATION:  Family  School  Workplace  State  Ideas (116 thousand cases, 72 country, 38 occupational groups)

5 Power distance  That is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family and school) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally e.g.  High PD – Malaysia, Panama, France  Low PD –Great Britain, Austria, Sweden  Low PD – less traditional agriculture, more modern technology, more urban living, more social mobility, better educational system, a larger middle class

6 Individualism vs collectivism  That is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups e.g.  individualism – USA, Canada, Sweden  collectivism –Eqwador, Panama, Greece  High I –wealthy, urbanized and industrialized societas, moderate and cold climate

7 Masculinity vs femininity  Refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found e.g.  Masculinity – Japan, Austria, Italy  Femininity – Sweden, Norway, Netherland  High M – social roles connected with gender

8 Uncertainity avoidance  Deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situation e.g.:  High UA –Greece, Portugal, Belgium  Low UA –Singapore, Sweden, Great Britain  High UA – wars, fundamentalism, xenophobia, rules and norms, high expression

9 The position of partners’ countries in Hofstede research (2000)

10 Subjects Age from 16 to 19 (M = 17,6) Secondary school students

11 „Dillemas”- development of instrument  The procedure consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the pilot list of 12 dilemmas (each 3 describing one of Hofstede's dimensions) was created. In the second phase, 10 experts representing partner countries involved in the project were asked to assess the validity of this instrument. The last version included 4 dilemmas with 100% assignments

12 „Dillemas” 1. Which of two version of handbook for scouts is in your opinion more attractive. Choose the answer: a) Way to Success (M) b) Way to Happiness (F) 2. In your opinion your exam grade is unfair and doesn’t reflect your knowledge. There is no chance to improve it. What are you doing in such situation? Choose the answer: a) I accept the grade (high PD) b) I am starting to negotiate with the teacher (low PD) 3. You are late for the lesson. For your teacher unpunctuality is breaking of the rule. How do you feel? Choose the answer: a) Guilty- because you understand your offence (I) b) Embarrassed - because you were discredited in front of others (C) 4. Which of the two ways of perceiving future situations applies to you? Choose the answer: a) Fear of failure (high UA) b) Hope of success (low UA)

13 I accept the grade I negotiate Embarrassed Guilty Way to happieness Hope of succes Fear of failure Way to succes

14 High High power distance

15 Power distance

16 Individualism collectivism Individualism - collectivism

17 Individualism - Collectivism

18 Masculinity Masculinity – Femininity

19 Masculinity - Femininity

20 High High uncertainity avoidance

21 Uncertainity avoidance

22 Conclusions  Poland and Cyprus are more similar when respondents answered the way of happiness as their intention / choice, compare to the other countries which the two options are almost balanced and in particular in Austria and Lithuania.  The power distance is high in Cyprus and UK, middle in Sweeden and Lithuania and low in Austria and Poland.  In all countries except UK most respondents feel guilty if they are late for the lesson.  Uncertainty is very low in Austria but not in the rest countries.  Nationality has the greater impact than gender in general but:  Male respondents from Sweden, Austria and United Kingdom have different approach toward scouts handbook. They choose more often „Way to success”  In the countries like Cyprus, Austria and UK, males are those who more than females would start to negotiate their grades.  In all countries males are feel more guilty than females. In Sweden, Austria and Lithuania, males they feel more guilty than in the other countries.  Females in all countries are more positives for the future and in particular females in UK and in Austria

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