Presentation on theme: "Sentencing Week 12 - The Sentencing Process. Last lecture... 4 Introduction to sentencing 4 Theories of punishment 4 History of criminological thought."— Presentation transcript:
Last lecture... 4 Introduction to sentencing 4 Theories of punishment 4 History of criminological thought 4 Justifications for punishment 4 Philosophical basis for sentencing in Qld - s 9(1) PSA
Part B. The sentencing process 4 Appeals against sentence 4 Governing principles 4 Other principles
Appeal against sentence by offender 4 s 668D 4 Buckmaster 4 Skinner 4 Griffiths 4 S 668E (3) - Corndale
Appeal by Attorney-General 4 s 669A 4 *Melano  2 Qd R 186 - Is the sentence outside the range of a proper sentencing discretion? 4 What matters can be raised? –Yanner  QCA 515
Appeal to High Court 4 Special leave to appeal required 4 What must be shown? –Lowe v The Queen 1984 HC
Penalties and Sentences Act 1992 4 Definitions s 4 –“Sentence” - wide definition –Brown –Corrigan –Briese
Sentencing factors: s 9(2) 4 Sentencing a discretionary process - balancing the different factors against one another 4 The list in s 9(2) is NOT EXHAUSTIVE: see s 9(2)(p): court may take into account “any other relevant circumstance”.
Sections 9(3) and (4) 4 Added by Serious Violent Offences amendments (7/97) - (see also Part 9A), but operates INDEPENDENTLY from Part 9A. 4 Applies where offence involves violence or results in physical harm (s 9(3)). 4 Means that s 9(2)(a) does NOT apply 4 Court must have regards PRIMARILY to factors in s 9(4) - emphasises protection of the community, circumstances of the offence and effect on the victim 4 s 9(2) ALSO applies
Factors: imprisonment as a last resort 4 s 9(2)(a) - imprisonment as last resort; sentence to stay in community is preferable –Condoleon 4 Imprisonment? 4 Youthful offenders - Lovell
Maximum penalties 4 (b) - the maximum and any minimum penalty prescribed for the offence –Veen no 2 (HC) 1988 - for which cases are the maximum penalties reserved? –Applied in Qld in Chivers
Nature and seriousness of offence and harm done 4 (c) - The nature and seriousness of the offence including any physical or emotional harm done to the victim –H (1993) 66 A Crim R 505 - charged with assault occ BH (339) and indecent assault (337) 4 See also ss 9(4)(a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (k) –NB: only where applicable –How do these subsections apply to make a difference ?
Section 9(2) cont 4 (d) - extent to which offender is to blame for offence - eg co-offenders - may also include moral culpability 4 (e) - damage injury or loss - eg amount of money taken in bank robbery
Personal characteristics 4 (f) - the offender’s character, age and intellectual capacity –Character: see s 11 (post) –See also s 9(4)(g) and (h) –Age: youth as mitigating factor: Hammond, and Lovell –Intellectual capacity: see Dunn (study guide)
Character: s 11 4 Includes previous convictions; significant community contributions; other relevant matters 4 Previous convictions - particularly relevance and date 4 Veen (no 2) 4 Discretion in s 11(c) does not permit the court to take into account other alleged offences not the subject of convictions: Burrows.
Personal circumstances 4 (g) the presence of any aggravating or mitigating factor concerning the offender - can cover many factors: eg: 4 Family responsibilities: R v Le should this be mitigatory? 4 Ill health: R v Smith
Prevalence 4 (h) prevalence of the offence –What does prevalence mean? –How is it assessed? –What is the relevance of prevalence to sentencing? –How should the court be informed of prevalence? –link to s 9(1)(c) - special and general deterrence –eg, H (see above)
Assistance to law enforcement agencies 4 (i) assistance to law enforcement agencies (this offence or others) –Batchelor (SG), Postiglione - (1997) 189 CLR 295 –What is the relevance of this to sentence? –How should such assistance be taken into account? –What are the ramifications of this for the offender? –What procedures should be followed when giving an undertaking? See s 13A
Intoxication and drug addiction 4 What is the relevance of intoxication to sentence? 4 Is intoxication of the offender at the time of the offence a mitigating factor? 4 What effect does drug addiction have on sentence? 4 See Rosenberger and Hammond.
Disparity between co-offenders 4 What does disparity mean? 4 Why is this important? 4 What is the principle for sentencing co- offenders? 4 See Lowe v The Queen 1984 HC
The totality principle 4 What is the totality principle? 4 How does it apply? 4 Does it only apply to Qld offences? 4 See Mill 1988 High Ct –applied in Coss –approved of in Postiglione (High Court)
Delay 4 What relevance does delay have to sentence? 4 What principles should be applied where there is a substantial delay between the commission of the offence and sentence? 4 Should the offender get the benefit of circumstances which have occurred in the mean- time? (eg, rehabilitation etc) 4 See Law 1996 Qld
Sentencing submissions video 4 Use to see sentencing procedure and what happens on sentence 4 Hearing takes place in the District Court 4 Note: Defence counsel refers to s 9(3)(b) which has now been replaced with something totally different: ignore this reference
Section 10 4 Why is giving reasons for sentence important? 4 When does this section apply? 4 How does it apply? 4 What will happen where the court does not give reasons?
Recording a conviction - s 12 4 S 12(1) discretionary (with exceptions) 4 s 12(2) factors 4 Brown: s 12(2) not exhaustive -balance - not restricted to young offenders 4 S 12(3)(a) conviction without recording conviction not a conviction for any purpose 4 s 12(3)(b) not entered in any records, except records of the court, and offender’s criminal history for purposes of s 4(b)
Cases on s 12 4 Eg, Graydon v Dickson - university student - possession of cannabis (SG) - minor offence 4 What principles are to be applied? –R v Brown 1994 –R v Briese 1997
Section 13 - Plea of guilty 4 What is the relevance of a plea of guilty to sentence? 4 How is a plea of guilty taken into account? –R v Corrigan 4 What factors are relevant? 4 Must a court make a reduction in the sentence to take into account a plea of guilty? 4 Is there a penalty for pleading NOT GUILTY? –See Siganto 1998 High Court 4 What is the relevance of remorse? –See s 9(4)(i)
Plea of guilty (cont) 4 What qualifies as a reduction? –wide interpretation, includes recommendation for early release on parole, suspending the sentence, imposing a fine etc - Corrigan –How does this work in practice? –video re-enactment –R v Corrigan  2 Qd R 415
Information on sentence - s 15 4 Section 15: court may receive “any information”; eg references, reports 4 Psychiatrist and psychologist’s reports –What role do they play? 4 Pre sentence reports: –Can these refer to other offences/allegations? 4 Comparative sentences –What are comparative sentences? –How are they taken into account?
Information on sentence (cont) 4 Victim Impact Statements –Optional on sentence –See Criminal Offence Victims Act 1995 –S 9(2)(c) PSA –Statement by victim, family, friend etc –Read orally or tendered –Victims can participate in process –Problem - damaging or inadmissible information –DPP guidelines
Disputed facts 4 Disputed facts: Morrison (unreported, Qld Court of Appeal 26 June 1998) - where disputed and fact is adverse to offender: beyond reasonable doubt. Where disputed and favourable to offender: balance of probabilities 4 NB: SEE EVIDENCE AMENDMENT BILL 2000 (12 APRIL 2000), PROPOSES TO OVERTURN MORRISON
Judge must only sentence on facts before him/her 4 Boney 1986 CA: Judge cannot take into account circumstances of aggravation which would have warranted a conviction for a more serious offence: applying De Simoni (HC) 4 Confirmed in R v D  1 Qd R 363
Other offences taken into account: s 189 4 See s 189 (eg, video) 4 Court may take into account other offences if offender is: represented, pleads guilty; and requests that they may be taken into account 4 Prosecution must also consent