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RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS 12 Angry Men pre-reading.

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1 RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS 12 Angry Men pre-reading

2 Pre-Reading Questions 1. What is the role of a jury in a criminal trial? 2. How many jurors must agree in a criminal trial in order to reach a verdict? 3. What other things did you learn about juries and trials from the library assignment you completed yesterday?

3 Definitions  Jury: a group of 12 people who listen to the details of a case in court and decide whether someone is guilty or not  Prosecutor: lawyer trying to prove that someone is guilty  Judge: official in a court of law  Defendant: person accused of doing something illegal  Plaintiff: person who accuses the defendant  Civil case: deals with disputes between organizations or individuals in which compensation (money) may be awarded to the victim  Criminal case: deals with serious crimes for which the state or federal government provides certain consequences  Depending on the offense, consequences may include execution, jail, government supervision (parole), or fines

4 The way a jury functions  Founded upon the idea that each juror possesses intelligence, integrity, sound judgment, and complete impartiality (neutrality, no bias)  Differ from members of the public because they have heard all of the evidence concerning a case firsthand and have promised to find a verdict that each one believes to be true

5 Juror’s job  Sole judge of the facts  Determine whether laws were broken based on the facts  Decide upon the believability of the witnesses and the importance of the witnesses’ testimonies  Cannot hesitate to find a person guilty if guilt is established beyond a reasonable doubt  Before the jury makes its decision, the judge instructs it on the correct “standard of proof”: innocent until proven guilty, suspicion, preponderance of evidence, clear and convincing evidence, and beyond a reasonable doubt

6 Standard 1: Innocent until proven guilty (civil & criminal cases)  The defendant is presumed to be innocent of the offense charged  Presumption of innocence goes with the defendant through the entire case  This is the reason defendants are said to have “allegedly” committed crimes

7 Standard 2: Preponderance of evidence (civil cases)  Plaintiff in a civil case must prove, by a preponderance of evidence, that their version of the facts were more likely to occur than the defendant’s version  Leaves more room for doubt than in a criminal case  Jury should find the evidence presented by the plaintiff to be more credible and convincing than the defendant’s

8 Standard 3: Clear and convincing evidence (criminal & civil)  Used in some civil cases  Plaintiff must prove by clear and convincing evidence that his/her version of the facts is much more likely to be true than the defendant’s version  Falls between preponderance of evidence and beyond a reasonable doubt _____________________________________________ *When the jurors retire to consider the verdict, the first task is to select a foreperson  Guides the discussion, writes down the verdict, signs it  Participates in the discussion and votes as part of the jury

9 Standard 4: Beyond Reasonable Doubt (criminal cases)  Definition: Proof that leaves a person firmly convinced of the defendant’s guilt (and few things are known with absolute certainty)  In criminal cases, the law does not require proof that overcomes every possible doubt  If a jury is firmly convinced that the defendant is guilty of the crime charged, it must find the accused guilty  On the other hand, if the jury thinks there’s a real possibility that he/she is not guilty, the defendant must be given the benefit of the doubt and found not guilty

10 Test Case: Who Stole the Cookies? The cookies are missing! With this “crime” in mind, you will look at the evidence on the following slide and determine which pieces of evidence fit each of the terms below:  General Suspicion  Preponderance of evidence  Clear and convincing evidence  Beyond a reasonable doubt

11 Who Stole the Cookies? 1. Your 4-year-old brother, Billy, is seen in the kitchen.  Suspicion 2. Billy is sitting at the table with a glass of milk and a happy face.  Suspicion 3. Billy, with a glass partially full of milk, cookie crumbs on the table near his glass.  Preponderance of evidence 4. Billy, with a glass partially full of milk, crumbs on his shirt and lap.  Clear and convincing evidence 5. Same, but you can see the cookie in his mouth.  Beyond a reasonable doubt

12 12 Angry Men Vocabulary: List #5 1. Premeditated (adj) – previously planned 2. Unanimous (adj) – describes a situation where everyone agrees 3. Verdict (n) - a decision as to whether someone is guilty or not guilty of a crime 4. Convict (v) – to decide someone is guilty 5. Acquit (v) – to determine someone is innocent 6. Circumstantial (adj) – describes evidence that is based on inferences, not facts 7. Abstain (v) – to voluntarily stay out of a situation 8. Bigot (n) – someone stubbornly attached to certain opinions in a way that discriminates against others 9. Sadist (n) – someone who takes pleasure in cruelty 10. Sheepishly (adv) – shyly; cowardly 11. Subservient (adj) – useful in an inferior way 12. Rapport (n) – positive dynamic between people; good relationship

13 Assigned Roles: Period 4  Foreperson: Rhett  Juror 2: Trevor  Juror 3: Mitchell P.  Juror 4: Julie  Juror 5: Daniel S.  Juror 6: Ryan  Juror 7: Elijah  Juror 8: Devyn  Juror 9: Cameron S.  Juror 10: Sammie  Juror 11: Rachel  Juror 12: Jordan  Guard: Ben  Guilty Arguments: Nicole K., Atlan, Joseph and Noah  Innocent Arguments: Kailey, Diego, Blake, and Daniel H.  Description and facts about the defendant: Mitchell C., Sanaz, Stephanie, and Eric (Clerk)

14 12 Angry Men Vocabulary ½ Sheet  With a partner, write a vocab. story using any combination of 6 words from your list to fit with one of the below topics:  A prediction regarding what you think this play will be about.  A synopsis of a movie/television show you have seen.

15 Journal #34 Topic: 12 Angry Men Juror Vote #2  Discuss and come up with who you think the juror is who votes Not guilty in the anonymous vote.  Look back through Act I and your juror notes to make an informed and supported assertion as to who you think the juror might be.  Make sure to have at least 2 Quotations (with page and line numbers) from Act I that support your decision.

16 Journal #35 Topic: Vote #3 Predictions  This Vote the Jury will be split down the middle: 6 Not Guilty, 6 Guilty.  Jurors 8, 9 and 5 have already committed to a Not Guilty vote. Look back through your Juror notes and Act II and make an informed and supported assertion as to who you think the additional 3 jurors will be who change their minds  Make sure to have at least 1 Quotation/description (with page number) that supports your decision.

17 12 Angry Men ½ Page Response  Imagine you were on the jury, and reflect back on your opinion through the drama. 1. How do you think you would have voted initially? Why? 2. Would you have joined the jury in acquitting the defendant at the end? Why? 3. What arguments would you have found most persuasive? 4. What role could you see yourself playing on the jury? Juror #? Why?

18 12 Angry Men In-Class Writing Prompt: Body Paragraph (20 points)  In a well-written body paragraph, conduct a character study of one of the jurors. How do his characteristics as explained in the profile on pp. 4-5 impact his actions and comments throughout the play? How does he impact the plot of the play overall?  This should be in correct body paragraph format, so minimum requirements are: TS, CD, CM, CM, CD, CM, CM, CS. (8 sentences minimum)  At least one CD must be a quote from the play, correctly cited.  Do not write in first or second person. *Make sure to identify the # of your juror in the TS.

19 In Reginald Rose’s 12 Angry Men, Juror #8 is portrayed as a fair-minded man with a commitment to justice. For example, at the beginning of the play, he exclaims to the other jurors: “It’s not so easy for me to send a boy off to die without talking about it first” (317). He says this in response to the attitude of the other jurors, who seem to assume that the boy on trial is guilty and want to reach a verdict as quickly as possible. Juror #8 is the only one who understands that his responsibility as a juror is to determine that someone is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt, especially when the consequence for the accused would be execution. He values human life and places importance on the life of a boy which others easily discard. In addition, at various points in the play, Juror #8 is the one who examines the evidence carefully and brings to light many discrepancies and fallacies that the other jurors mindlessly accepted when presented by the prosecution. Among these incidents include the calling into question of the female eyewitness’ impaired eyesight, and the speed (or lack thereof) with which the old man in the apartment above reached the hallway the night of the murder. Throughout the course of discussing these incidents, Juror #8 not only makes the other jurors think more logically, but forces prejudiced jurors such as #10 to challenge their preconceived notions about race and socioeconomic status. Juror #8 approaches the bigotry and ignorance of the other jurors in a methodical way, and this largely transforms a group of angry, combative men into more compassionate and tolerant individuals by the play’s end. 


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