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Principles of Evolution Chapter 10. Early Ideas About Evolution  Carolus Linnaeus Botanist Botanist Classification of organisms (Taxonomy) Classification.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Evolution Chapter 10. Early Ideas About Evolution  Carolus Linnaeus Botanist Botanist Classification of organisms (Taxonomy) Classification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Evolution Chapter 10

2 Early Ideas About Evolution  Carolus Linnaeus Botanist Botanist Classification of organisms (Taxonomy) Classification of organisms (Taxonomy) Still used today Still used today Developed the species idea Developed the species idea Species-organisms so related that can interbreedSpecies-organisms so related that can interbreed

3 Early Ideas About Evolution  Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon Proposed species shared ancestors Felt Earth was older than 6000 years Comparative anatomy – similar structures in related species

4 Early Ideas About Evolution  Erasmus Darwin Darwin’s grandfather Darwin’s grandfather All living things from a common ancestor All living things from a common ancestor Gave rise to his grandson’s theory Gave rise to his grandson’s theory

5 Early Ideas About Evolution  Lamarck’s Evolution Hypotheses Living things have changed over time—and that all species were descended from other species. Living things have changed over time—and that all species were descended from other species. Organisms change to adapt to their environment Organisms change to adapt to their environment

6 Early Ideas About Evolution Tendency Toward Perfection All organisms strive to be complex and perfect This leads to constant change This change is a response to the environment and a desire to be perfect

7 Early Ideas About Evolution Use and Disuse Organisms could alter the size or shape of an organ - Use it or lose it If you don’t use the structure it will go away If you use it continually, it will get larger

8 Early Ideas About Evolution Inheritance of Acquired Traits Animals can change their body If they do they can pass on the new trait Ex. – Giraffes and long necks

9 Early Ideas About Evolution Evaluating Lamarck’s Hypotheses Many of Lamarck’s ideas were incorrect

10 Early Ideas About Evolution  Georges Cuvier Species can’t change, but the can go extinct Species can’t change, but the can go extinct Fossils – preserved remains of living things Fossils – preserved remains of living things Catastrophism Catastrophism Natural disasters shape EarthNatural disasters shape Earth Cause species to become extinctCause species to become extinct

11 Early Ideas About Evolution Hutton and Geological Change Gradualism - geological forces shape the earth Layers of rock form very slowly These layers are shaped by natural forces Due to the slow nature of the forces, he concluded Earth is very old

12 Early Ideas About Evolution Lyell’s Principles of Geology Uniformitarianism To understand the past, you have to look in the “now” Earth process Volcanoes Earthquakes Erosion

13 Darwin’s Observations  Biodiversity – The variety of living things in life  Evolution – change over time

14 15-1 Life’s Diversity  Voyage of the Beagle The Beagle was British Naval ship  Charles Darwin The father of evolution

15 Darwin’s Observations As a member of H.M.S. Beagle Darwin collected animal and plant specimens These specimens were later used to create the theory of evolution

16 Darwin’s Observations  Variation – difference in physical traits He found 68 different species of beetles in one day in a Brazilian forest! Found variations when traveling from place to place

17 Darwin’s Observations Patterns of Diversity Types of animals in similar places Ways that animals reproduce Ways that animals survive Adaptation – feature that makes an organism better suited to its environment

18 Darwin’s Observations Living Organisms and Fossils Darwin found Glyptodon Rationalized that extinct animals looked much like existing animals

19 Darwin’s Observations The Galapagos Islands A group of islands northwest of South America Darwin spent a lot of time collecting there: Iguanas Birds Tortoises

20 Darwin’s Observations

21  The Journey Home Darwin observed that the characteristics of many animals and plants varied noticeably among the different islands of the Galapagos. According to this hypothesis, these separate species would have evolved from an original South American ancestor species after becoming isolated from one another.

22 Theory of Natural Selection  Inherited Variation and Artificial Selection Variation within domesticated species species Breeders select characteristics they want Pigeons Heritable For variations to be bred for characteristic must be able to be passed on

23 Theory of Natural Selection Survival of the Fittest – individuals that can survive and reproduce This is also called Natural Selection

24 Theory of Natural Selection  Population Growth Malthus - 1798 A population can not grow forever Food Space

25 Theory of Natural Selection  Evolution Struggle for Existence Members of one species compete with each others (populations) for resources Food Living Space Predators that are the fastest or are adept hunters will be more successful

26 Theory of Natural Selection  The reason for a structure or feature is because of adaptations  Ultimately, natural selection results in either an organism changing traits, OR it dies

27 Theory of Natural Selection  Alfred Wallace Developed a similar theory Developed a similar theory Sent his manuscript to Darwin Sent his manuscript to Darwin Wanted to publish the same findings Darwin had Wanted to publish the same findings Darwin had

28 Theory of Natural Selection  Publication On the Origin of Species Darwin was nervous about publishing It challenged every fundamental scientific belief

29 Theory of Natural Selection  Four main principles of Natural Selection Variation Variation Overproduction Overproduction Adaptation Adaptation Descent with modification Descent with modification

30 Theory of Natural Selection  Variation Exist in all populations Exist in all populations Result from differences in genetic make up Result from differences in genetic make up ParentsParents MutationsMutations

31 Theory of Natural Selection  Overproduction Produce more offspring More chance for survival Increase competition

32 Theory of Natural Selection Adaptation An inherited trait that improves the organism’s chance of survival Successful adaptations make animals better suited to their environment Adaptations can be anatomical, structural, characteristics, physiological, or functions

33 Theory of Natural Selection Descent with modification These adaptations will lead to different species over time Different: Structures Niches Habitats

34 Theory of Natural Selection Common descent All living things have a common ancestor

35 Theory of Natural Selection

36 Fitness - the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce Fitness happens because of adaptations

37 Theory of Natural Selection  The Grant’s Studied finches on Daphne Major Studied finches on Daphne Major 1977 Drought 1977 Drought Reduced the number of seeds Reduced the number of seeds Drop in species numbers Drop in species numbers

38 Theory of Natural Selection  Grant’s predicted a trait already in the population would survive  This was passed on to future generations Increase in numbers Increase in numbers  As environments change, different traits become beneficial

39 Theory of Natural Selection  Adaptations and Compromise Some adaptations become new functions Some adaptations become new functions Panda thumbPanda thumb

40 Evidence of Evolution  Fossil Evidence Bone structure, age, location of discovery Fossils found in deeper layers are older than more superficial layers

41 Evidence of Evolution Geographic Distribution Species move from place to place Ancestral species to islands Certain traits may be beneficial when moving Ex. Finches Biogeography Study of the distribution of organisms around world

42 Evidence of Evolution Similarities in Embryology Crab and barnacle larvae Vertebrate embryos look very similar early in development Evidence for common descent

43 Evidence of Evolution

44 Homologous Body Structures Structures that come from the same embryonic tissues Homologous structures – bat wing and human hand Analogous structures – bird wing and insect wing

45 Evidence of Evolution  Vestigial organs – organs with little to no function Natural selection has caused the organ to shrink or “disappear” Natural selection has caused the organ to shrink or “disappear”

46 Evolutionary Biology Today  Paleontology Study of fossils Study of fossils No fossil evidence to contradict evolution has been found No fossil evidence to contradict evolution has been found

47 Evolutionary Biology Today  Molecular and Genetic evidence DNA sequencing DNA sequencing Pseudogenes Pseudogenes Homeobox genes Homeobox genes Protein comparisons Protein comparisons

48 Evolutionary Biology Today  Evolutionary biology is a fast growing field New technology New technology New discoveries New discoveries Benefits? Benefits? How does the idea of a common ancestor help understand new diseases?How does the idea of a common ancestor help understand new diseases?


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