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What do geologists do? In school: Learn how the Earth works—processes On the job: Use knowledge about Earth processes to produce something of value: Knowledge=$

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Presentation on theme: "What do geologists do? In school: Learn how the Earth works—processes On the job: Use knowledge about Earth processes to produce something of value: Knowledge=$"— Presentation transcript:

1 What do geologists do? In school: Learn how the Earth works—processes On the job: Use knowledge about Earth processes to produce something of value: Knowledge=$

2 Major Career Options 1. Discovering and protecting resources 2. Identifying and avoiding natural hazards 3. Researching natural processes

3 Resources Energy to run everything –Oil, Gas, Coal, Steam, Hydroelectric, Uranium Materials to make almost everything –Metals, Oil (plastics, chemicals), – Construction, gems, chemicals Water for food, industry, agriculture

4 Energy How to find oil, gas, coal? Shell Oil, Mars Platform in Gulf of Mexico (130 miles from New Orleans) ft of water. $1.2 billion Spindletop, Beaumont, TX, 1901

5 Finding Resources 1.Understand how they are formed—processes. 2.Predict where those processes should occur now or in the past. 3.Identify likely locations. 4.Test your ideas. Are you right?

6 Process of oil formation Source Rock

7 Prudhoe Bay Oil Field (1968) Anticlinal/Unconformity Combination Trap

8 Identify likely locations Aerial photo Field mapping Working geological map

9 Clemson Anderson Greenville 30 miles Geologic map of rocks at the ground surface in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge by Bob Hatcher

10 Geophysics Gravity Gravity Magnetics Magnetics Seismics Seismics JMA Looking into the subsurface

11 Seismic Imaging of Anticline Vibrator Truck (Energy Source) Recording Truck Geophone (Receivers) American Petroleum Institute, 1986 Returning Sound Waves

12 Geologists making 3D seismic surveys

13 Seismic Image of Anticline Milliseconds

14 3D imaging of subsurface geology

15 The Test Casing Drill Pipe Bit

16 OffshoreOnshore Daily Rig Cost 1998$90, $40,000 (Single year contract) Ultra Deep Daily Rig Cost 1998$180, $180,000 (Five year contract) Cost of Drilling Rigs Daily Rig Cost 1998$60, $30,000 (Single year contract) JMA

17 Other exploration targets Emerald Diamond Salt GoldGravel

18 Approach 1. Understand geological processes 2. Identify possible targets—field mapping, surface sampling, geophysics, computer simulations and analysis 3. Test—drill and sample 4. Discover!

19 Groundwater Finding and protecting a resource

20 Strategy 1.Understand how contaminants move in ground water. 2.Identify sources of contaminants at site 3.Identify plumes in ground water 4.Clean it up

21 Soil Sample Identifying contaminants below ground Small drilling rig Water sampling Handling samples in the field

22 3-D Map of contaminant plume

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24 Computer simulations

25 Natural Hazards Earthquake Volcano Debris flow Landslide Tsunami Swelling soil Subsidence Santa Tecla Landslide, El Salvador. Jan. 13, dead

26 Landslide, La Conchita, CA

27 Landslides Thistle Landslide, Utah

28 McClure Pass Landslide, CO

29 What happens? Rain fall increases water content and pore pressure. More rain = worse Soil weakens and slips. Clay soils = worse Ground shaking = worse Toe Scarp Movement from few inches to ½ mile or more

30 Risk of Landslide = Rock types + water Understand the geology, estimate the risk

31 The next eruption? Volcano hazards and the geologist

32 How eruptions happen

33 More Landslide Trouble….

34

35 Pyroclastic flow

36 Lahar Another problem during eruptions

37 Geologists’ role Understand recent and ancient eruptions to determine risks in the future

38 Example: Evaluate locations and sizes of Lahars associated with Mt. Rainier. Develop plan to evacuate, avoid danger in Tacoma

39 Monitor warning signals

40 Tsunami Where, when, how big will the wave be? Learn to recognize recent tsunami deposits, then identify ancient deposits. Evaluate future risk from past events. Sampling site of July 17, 1998 tsunami in Papua New Guinea. Mapping tsunami deposits Recent tsunami deposit in Papua New Guinea

41 Evidence for a Big Tsunami in Pacific Northwest Figure 5: Mud rip-up clast in tsunami sand. A 2-cm gray colored mud rip- up clast is visible in the upper left corner of this photo. Tsunami sand deposit from Washington coast. Buried soil age dated to 1700 Ghost forest in coastal Washington. Tree rings indicate they all died in 1700 from sudden subsidence and sand inundation=tsunami

42 Research Advance understanding about Earth processes –Improve efforts to locate resources, reduce risks from hazards –Answer other questions…

43 Life on Mars? On Earth, life requires water

44 Evidence in the landscape Former river drainage? Landslide. Was water involved?

45 Robots to obtain geological data

46 Concretions deposited from water (blue) Layered sediments deposited in flowing water Panorama of the landing site Evidence for water

47 Common Themes Use understanding of processes to predict what or where Go outside to obtain data Assemble data in the office to test predictions Integrate technology in the field and office

48 Common traits of jobs as a geologist Solve challenging problems Work outdoors Casual atmosphere Travel Technology Computers

49 Who hires geologists? Companies who sell resources –Oil, minerals, metals Companies who sell/need advice –Environmental consultants –Geotechnical/Engineering consultants –Industries with environmental problems Government Agencies –USGS, NASA, DOE, NRC, NPS Universities

50 Career Prospects Energy: Very good, highest $ Environmental: Excellent. Largest employer Minerals: Fair. Travel Hazards: Good, in the right places Research: Good, need grad degree

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