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Periodic Table: A Review of history, uses, and descriptions of selected elements.

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Presentation on theme: "Periodic Table: A Review of history, uses, and descriptions of selected elements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Periodic Table: A Review of history, uses, and descriptions of selected elements.

2 Ancient Discoveries Copper History First metal mined and crafted? Discoveries: 9000 BC in the Middle East Turkish beads dated 6000BC Serbian tools 5000BC Smelting: China before 2800 BC Central America 600 AD West Africa 9th-10th century AD Copper Age Axes Armor Currency Turkey Black Sea Mediterranean Sea Iraq Iran Saudi Arabia Serbia Turkey Serbian Copper tools - axes, hammers, hooks and needles Hays, 2011 Wikipedia

3 Ancient Discoveries Copper Uses Today Used: Wire and cable Electronics Architecture Art and jewelry Copper: Unexposed: a reddish-orange color Exposed: greenish High electrical conductivity Soft and malleable Atomic number is 29 Transition metal Mediterranean Sea Iraq Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia Copper Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 1 liberty.html (Wikipedia)

4 Ancient Discoveries Gold History Status Ancient societies in Middle East Egyptian tombs oldest uses Tutankhamen’s or King Tut Turkey Iraq Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia King Tut’s tomb and treasures when on exhibit in Dublin 2011., big.jpg Northwest Territorial Mint, 2012 Wikipedia

5 Most common uses: Coins and jewelry Tableware Dental Electronics Medicinal Ancient Discoveries Gold Uses and Description Gold: Yellowish, shiny, and soft High Density Good heat and electric conductor Malleable and ductile Atomic number 79 Transition metal Gold Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 (Wikipedia)

6 Ancient Discoveries Lead History Manufacturing began 9,000 years ago Lead beads 6400 BC Turkey Statuette of Osiris 3800 BC Egyptian glazed pottery 3000-4000BC Coins in 4000BC Chinese Greeks Romans Gladiators and Warriors covered fists Turkey Iraq Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia Kingston Technical Software, 2012 Wikipedia Ancient Roman Coin coin-1.jpg

7 Ancient Discoveries Lead Uses Uses: Plumbing Paint additive (lead poisoning) Not pencils Small arms ammunition Shotgun pellets Sailboat ballast and SCUBA Ore processing Cairo Greece Turkey Italy Greece Syria Iraq Syria Iraq Lead pipe in Roman bath in Bath, Somerset, England (Wikipedia)

8 Ancient Discoveries Lead Description Lead: Bluish-white fresh cut Dull Gray exposed cut Liquid Lead: shiny chrome-silver luster Soft Heavy metal Poor electric conductor Not very malleable Atomic number is 82 Post-transition metal (Wikipedia) Lead Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4

9 Ancient Discoveries Silver History and Uses Discovered shortly after copper and gold Asia Minor Silver precious metal: Jewelry Investing and coins Silverware Other uses of silver include: Electrical contacts and conductors Catalyst in chemical reactions Photographic film Dentistry Cairo Ancient regions of Asia Minor Turkey NW Territorial Mint, 2012 Wikipedia Wikipedia

10 Ancient Discoveries Silver Description Cairo (Wikipedia) Silver: Lustrous white metallic Soft Highest electrical conductivity Very ductile and malleable Atomic number is 47 Transition metal Silver Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 18, 1

11 Ancient Discoveries Iron History Used before 5000 BC The earliest artifacts: Iran 5000 BC Egypt 4000 BC China 2000 BC Egyptians beads iron meteorites 2000 BC production From south of the Sahara to China Cairo Syria India China Mongolia Japan North Korea (Wikipedia) Sahara Egypt Iran

12 Ancient Discoveries Iron Uses Smelting iron : Tools and weapons Iron Age (1200 BC) Today’s uses: 95% of worldwide metal production Proteins Wrought Iron Cast Iron Steel Vitamins Cairo Example of Iron age weapons and armor (Wikipedia)

13 Ancient Discoveries Iron Description Iron: Grayish Lustrous Pure iron soft (softer than aluminum) Poor electric conductor Malleable and ductile Atomic number is 26 Transition metal Common in Earth’s Crust (Fourth) Forms much of the inner and outer core Cairo (Wikipedia) Iron Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 14, 2

14 Ancient Discoveries Carbon History Carbon was discovered in prehistory Known to earliest civilizations in the forms: Soot Charcoal Earliest known use Egyptians and Sumerians (3750BC) Cairo Turkey Iraq Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Black Sea (Wikipedia)

15 Ancient Discoveries Carbon as Charcoal Charcoal was used: In the manufacture of bronze Domestically used smokeless fuel Ancient Egyptian medicine: Absorb odor rotting flesh Intestinal Today’s Uses: Alloys with iron (carbonized steel) Graphite for pencils, lubricants, and pigments Batteries, eclectic motors, and nuclear reactors Artwork and grilling Wood, coal and oil are used as fuel Cairo University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2012 Wikipedia

16 Ancient Discoveries Carbon in Diamond Form Diamonds: 2500 BC in China Production started in the 1870s (discovery in South Africa) 4.5 billion carats have been mined The most recent mines: Canada, Zimbabwe, Angola, and Russia In the United States: Arkansas, Colorado, and Montana Industrial diamonds: hardness and heat conductivity Gem-quality diamonds: clarity, cut, carat, and color (Wikipedia)

17 Ancient Discoveries Carbon in Diamond form Dominant industrial uses: Cutting Drilling Grinding Polishing Most common diamonds are industrial- grade called “bort” Cairo (Wikipedia) sciences/geology/minerals-and-crystals/classification/native- elements/Diamond/Bort-Diamonds/Bort-Diamonds-1.html Bort Diamond

18 Ancient Discoveries Carbon Description Carbon: Highly transparent jewel like, or dark black Diamonds are extremely hard Charcoal is extremely soft Good electric conductor Not malleable Atomic number is 6 and Non-metal Cairo (Wikipedia) Carbon Electron Configuration: 2, 4

19 Ancient Discoveries Sulfur History Chinese: Discovered 600BC By 300 BC the Chinese extracted sulfur from pyrite Flammability and reactions with other metals Medicine Ancient Egyptian: ointment to treat a type Pink Eye Ancient Greeks: Used in fumigation Medicine Bleaching cloth Historical times sulfur was called “brimstone Greece Turkey (Wikipedia)

20 Ancient Discoveries Sulfur Uses and Description Today sulfuric acid is used: Extract phosphate ores (fertilizer manufacturing) Was used for high quality gun powder Oil refining Wastewater processing, mineral extraction (Wikipedia) Sulfur: Bright yellow Distinct odor Poor conductor electricity Soft and brittle Atomic number of 6 Non-metal Sulfur Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 6

21 Ancient Discoveries Mercury History Identified in China and India before 2000 BC Also known as quick silver Egyptian tombs in 1500 BC The Chinese and Tibetans Prolong life Heal fractured bones Maintain good health Cairo Syria India China Mongolia Japan North Korea Syria India China Mongolia Japan North Korea Turkey Iraq Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia (Wikipedia)

22 Ancient Discoveries Mercury Uses The first emperor of China: Tomb Ingested “elixir of life” Use of mercury in medicine today declined (toxic) Mercury in over-the-counter drugs: Topical antiseptics Stimulant laxatives Diaper-rash ointment Eye drops Nasal spray Cairo Syria India China Mongolia Japan North Korea Model of Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi Tomb (Wikipedia)

23 Ancient Discoveries Mercury Uses Other uses include: Thermometers (no longer used) Barometers and Manometers Float Valves Many others Mercury is also still used in scientific research and in aspects of dental restorations. Japan (Wikipedia) A pound coin floats in mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension. http://www.walther-,

24 Ancient Discoveries Mercury Description Mercury: Silvery-white metal Only metal liquid at standard temperatures Dense Poor heat conductor Fair conductor of electricity Atomic number of 80 Transition metal Cairo Japan North Korea (Wikipedia) Mercury Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2

25 Ancient Discoveries Zinc History India extraction 1000BC Identified zinc as a unique metal in 800 AD. Judean brass from the 14th to 10th centuries BC contains around 25% zinc Cairo Thailand Syria India China Mongolia Japan North Korea India Pakistan Iran Nepal Arabian Sea Bay of Bengal (Wikipedia)

26 Ancient Discoveries Zinc Uses Today Zinc is used: Batteries Alloys (create brass) Other industrial uses (fire retardant) Dietary supplement (vitamins) Topical use (zinc oxide for sunscreen) Cairo Thailand (Wikipedia)

27 Ancient Discoveries Zinc Description Zinc: Bluish-white Lustrous Hard and brittle at most temperatures Fair conductor of electricity Atomic number of 30 Transition metal Cairo Thailand (Wikipedia) Zinc Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 2

28 Ancient Discoveries Chromium History and Uses China over 2000 years ago: Coating weapons The Terracotta Army Used in: Metal Working Chrome plating Stainless steel Dye and pigment Wood preservative Cairo Thailand Terracotta army Terracotta Warriors (Wikipedia)

29 Ancient Discoveries Chromium Description Cairo Thailand (Wikipedia) Chromium: Steely-gray Lustrous Hard but still malleable High melting point Magnetic properties Atomic number of 24 Transition metal Chromium Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 13, 1

30 Recent Discoveries Platinum History and Uses The first description found in South American gold in 1557 Ulloa: Spanish general, explorer, and first Spanish governor of Louisiana. Published findings 1748 Cairo Thailand Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Girault (Wikipedia) Platinum uses: Laboratory equipment Electrical contacts and electrodes Dentistry equipment Jewelry,

31 Recent Discoveries Platinum Uses Cairo Thailand (Wikipedia) Platinum: Pure form silver-white Lustrous Ductile and malleable Excellent conductor of electricity Atomic number 78 Transition metal Platinum Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1

32 Recent Discoveries Tungsten (Wolfram) History Torbern Olaf Bergman first observed Elhúyar brothers first isolated it in 1783 Fausto a Spanish chemist Juan José “scientific spy” Tungsten alloys used: Light bulb filaments X-ray tubes Electrodes in TIG welding Military grade penetrating missiles Cairo Thailand Placio De Mineria /Fausto_Elhuyar Fausto Elhúyar (Wikipedia) garc144/marcocientificos/del huyar.html Juan José Elhúyar

33 Recent Discoveries Tungsten Description Tungsten: Steel-gray Hard Good conductor of electricity Brittle Atomic number of 74 Transition metal Cairo Thailand (Wikipedia) Tungsten Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2

34 Recent Discoveries Vanadium History Discovered by: Andrés Manuel del Río Fernández was a Spanish–Mexican scientist Made discovery but later retracted Some of it’s uses include: A steel additive increasing the strength of steel Axles Bicycle frames Crankshafts Gears Cairo Thailand Andrés Manuel del Río (Wikipedia) AAAAAARE/pu4I6YKg8zg/s1600/Vanadium.jpg images/ferro-vanadium-830198.jpg

35 Recent Discoveries Vanadium Description Vanadium: Blue-silver-grey Hard Ductile and malleable Atomic number 23 Transition metal Cairo Thailand (Wikipedia) Vanadium Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 11, 2

36 Recent Discoveries Polonium Radium Histories Cairo Thailand Marie Skłodowska-Curie (Madam Curie) Marie Skłodowska-Curie Revolutionary research on radioactivity The first woman to win a Nobel Prize The only woman to in two field and multiple sciences The first female professor at the University of Paris Discovered polonium and radium with her husband Pierre Currie (Wikipedia) http://images-of-

37 Recent Discoveries Polonium History and Uses Cairo Thailand July 13, 1898: Noticed an increased radioactivity from uranium sample (pitchblende) Source was an unknown element Rare and highly radioactive No stable isotopes Occurs in uranium ores Few Uses: heaters in space probes and sourced of neutrons and alpha particles (Wikipedia) http://images-of-

38 Recent Discoveries Polonium Cairo Thailand Polonium Silvery Rare Highly radioactive no stable isotopes Atomic number of 84 Post-transitional metal (Wikipedia) Polonium Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6

39 Recent Discoveries Radium Uses Cairo Thailand December 21, 1898 : Isolated Different than polonium Extracted from uranium-rich Radium was formerly used in: Self-luminous paints for watches Nuclear panels Aircraft switches Clocks Instrument dials Medical use: Radon gas was used as a cancer treatment (Wikipedia)

40 Recent Discoveries Radium Uses Cairo Thailand Was added to: Toothpaste Hair creams Food items (curative powers) Today: Radioactive As well as its decay product (radon gas) Chemically similar to calcium Can replace calcium in bones Exposure can cause cancer and other disorders (Wikipedia)

41 Recent Discoveries Radium Description Cairo Thailand Radium: Almost pure-white but oxidizes to black All isotopes are highly radioactive Atomic number of 88 Alkaline earth metal Heaviest of all the known alkaline earth metals (Wikipedia) Radium Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2

42 Recent Discoveries Promethium History Chien-Shiung Wu: Chinese-American physicist Expertise experimental physics and radioactivity Manhattan Project 1942-1945 Nicknames: "First Lady of Physics", the "Chinese Marie Curie", and "Madame Wu" Nobel Prize for Physics in 1957 Cairo Thailand Chien-Shiung Wu (Wikipedia)

43 Recent Discoveries Promethium Uses Uses: Mostly used only for research purposes, (except for promethium-147) Some signal lights Atomic batteries Standard for most space-exploration related uses Was used in self-luminous paint First prepared in 1942 Isolation did not occur until the Manhattan Project Thailand (Wikipedia)

44 Recent Discoveries Promethium Promethium: Metallic appearance All of its isotopes are radioactive Forms salts when combined with other elements Atomic number is 61 Inner transition metal lanthanide series Cairo Thailand (Wikipedia) Promethium Electron Configuration: 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2

45 References Wikipedia Hays, Jeffrey (March, 2011). COPPER AGE, BRONZE AGE AND IRON AGE. Retrieved by: Saurav, Shukla (11/15/2010). World's oldest Copper Age settlement found. Retrieved by : settlement-found-237308 Northwest Territorial Mint (2005-2012). Gold Historical Background. Retrieved by: Northwest Territorial Mint (2005-2012). Silver Historical Background. Retrieved by: Kingston Technical Software, (2012). Lead in History. Retrieved by: : University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (September 27, 2012). History of Carbon. Retrieved by: Fausto and Juan José D’Elhuyar y de Suvisa. Retrieved by:

46 Picture References Periodic Table of Elements. Retrieved by: Copper. Retrieved by:, 237308, Statue of Liberty: Maps provided by Google Earth Gold. Retrieved by:, dublin/, Lead. Retrieved by:,,, Silver. Retrieved by:, http://images-02.delcampe- 508aba_3.jpg, Iron. Retrieved by:, vek/149 Carbon. Retrieved by: Charcoal Retrieved by: Diamond. Retrieved by:, 1.html Sulfur. Retrieved by: Mercury. Retrieved by:,,, Zinc. Retrieved by:, Chromium. Retrieved by:, Terracotta Warrior. Retrieved by: Terracotta Army. Retrieved by: Platinum. Retrieved by:, Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Girault. Retrieved by: Tungsten. Retrieved by:, Juan José Elhuyar. Retrieved by: Fausto Elhuyar. Retrieved by: Placio De Mineria. Retrieved by: Vanadium. Retrieved by:,, Andrés Manuel del Río. Retrieved by: Polonium. Retrieved by:, Radium. Retrieved by: Marie Skłodowska-Curie (Madam Curie). Retrieved by: Promethium. Retrieved by: Chien-Shiung Wu. Retrieved by:

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