A BRIEF HISTORY OF WHITE SUPREMACY IN WHATCOM COUNTY Rural society in Whatcom County has been characteristically insular, xenophobic and white supremacist over the long twentieth century. A strategy of expelling entire labor forces in competition with each other for jobs, in order to drive down wages, has plagued the region since the turn of the twentieth century. In 1885 Bellingham civic leaders expelled Chinese residents and celebrated their removal with a torchlight parade. In 1907, race riots in Bellingham, WA occurred when five hundred white men brutalized and expelled South Asian immigrants over the course of five days. These blatant acts of hatred were followed by decades of Ku Klux Klan activity that focused on seeking out members of the Communist Party and culminated with the internment of Japanese farmers during World War II. This reign of terror against those who are deemed outsiders and agitators has persisted in this region and a major side affect has been to drive down wages, specifically when it comes to agricultural labor. In Whatcom County, labor, race and immigration have been the intertwined since the introduction of industrialized agriculture to the region.
WHATCOM COUNTY LAND USE IN ACRES NON LABOR INTENSIVE CROPS Source: USDA Census of Agriculture 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007
What this data shows is that there has been a per capita decrease in non labor intensive crops such as wheat, and a steady increase of labor intensive crops which require large pools of skilled agricultural labor. WHATCOM COUNTY LAND USE IN ACRES LABOR INTENSIVE CROPS Source: USDA Census of Agriculture 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007
MARKET VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ($1,000) IN WHATCOM COUNTY Source: USDA Census of Agriculture 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEFINITION OF RACIAL PROFILING “any police-initiated action that relies on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity” (Ramirez, McDevitt and Farrell, 2000:3)
WASHINGTON STATE LEGISLATURE’S DEFINITION OF RACIAL PROFILING “Racial profiling is the illegal use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop and question, take enforcement action, arrest, or search a person or vehicle with or without a legal basis under the United States Constitution or the Washington State Constitution.” (Lovrich et al., 2003:15)
Source: Amnesty International RACIAL PROFILING IS PROHIBITED IN WASHINGTON
WASHINGTON STATE LAWS BANNING RACIAL PROFILING “In the year 2000, Washington State Legislature passed a law requiring the State Patrol to collect and report semi- annually on ‘the number of individuals stopped for routine traffic enforcement’ (Washington State Patrol, 2000).” (Lovich et al., 2003:30) Engrossed Senate Bill 5852, Washington State Legislature, 2002 led to RCW 43.101.410
QUALIFICATIONS: Qualitative: All of the evidence collected by Community to Community Development, One America and independent researchers on racial profiling and harassment used in this presentation is qualitative evidence including ethnography, archival research, interviews, and oral histories. Quantitative: Most of the law enforcement agency statistical data (CBP, ICE, WSP, WCS, Bellingham PD, Lynden PD), governmental and Civil departments (DSHS and WCHD) used in this presentation is quantitative. Because the burden of evidence is not met by qualitative evidence in the court of law, and because quantitative evidence is minimal and self-reported by law enforcement agencies, most studies find “The likelihood of being stopped by the Washington State Patrol is not effected by the race or ethnicity of the drivers on Washington’s roads and highways.”(Lovrich et al., 2003:2) EVIDENCE:
TRAFFIC STOPS AND RACIAL PROFILING – THE EFFECT OF MANDATORY REPORTING
WSP TRAFFIC STOPS IN BELLINGHAM, WA (2000- 2002) PERCENT OF “DAYLIGHT” CONTACTS BY RACE PERCENT ISSUED CITATION BY RACE Source: Lovrich, Nicholas et al. “WSP Traffic Stop Data Analysis Project: Data Analysis Project Report” June 1, 2003, Table 3 and Table 11.
WSP TRAFFIC STOPS IN BELLINGHAM, WA (2005- 2006) PERCENT OF “DAYLIGHT” CONTACTS BY RACE/ETHNICITY PERCENT ISSUED CITATION BY RACE/ ETHNICITY Source: Lovrich, Nicholas et al. “Report to the Washington State Patrol” 2007, Table 9
The percentage is about the same in regards to “Daylight” traffic stops by WSP between 2002 and 2005-06, the main difference is a significant increase in East Indian and Asian stops in this region. WSP “DAYLIGHT” TRAFFIC STOPS IN BELLINGHAM FINDINGS, NO BIAS
2002 WSP NON DISCRETIONARY SEARCHES BY RACE/ETHNICITY YEILDING NO CONTRABAND YIELDING CONTRABAND Source: Lovrich, Nicholas et al. “WSP Traffic Stop Data Analysis Project: Data Analysis Project Report” June 1, 2003, Table S-4.
2005-06 WSP LOW DISCRETIONARY SEARCHES BY RACE/ETHNICITY NO CONTRABANDCONTRABAND Source: Lovrich, Nicholas et al. “Report to the Washington State Patrol” 2007, Table 20.
KEY FINDING: Mandatory reporting appears to have lowered the amount of unwarranted low discretionary searches by the WSP in Washington State within five years of the policy. LOW DISCRETIONARY SEARCHES BY WSP IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON
UNLIKE THE WSP, LOCAL POLICE DEPARTMENTS ARE NOT HELD TO THE SAME STANDARD IN REPORTING WHEN IT COMES TO RACE AND ETHNICITY.
LYNDEN POLICE DEPARTMENT TRAFFIC STOPS (2006-2010) Source: Lynden Police Department Annual Report (2011)
INCIDENTS OF RACIAL PROFILING HARASSMENT AND EXCESSIVE FORCE IN WHATCOM COUNTY
REPORTED TRAFFIC STOPS LEADING TO DHS DETENTION BY INITIATING AGENCY IN WHATCOM COUNTY (2006-2012) Source: Field Notes, C2C Intake Forms, One America 2012 Report
NUMBER OF REPORTED INCIDENTS OF HARASSMENT BY CITY (2004-2012) [EXCLUDING ICE RAIDS] Source: Field Notes, C2C Intake Forms, One America 2012 Report
REPORTED LOCATIONS OF HARASSMENT IN WHATCOM COUNTY (2004-2012) [EXCLUDING ICE RAIDS]
Bellingham, WA – ICE Raid results in 26 workers arrested. Some of the women are released on humanitarian grounds, mothers with young children who are citizens under the order to not work or face deportation, the majority are taken to the Northwest Detention Center in Tacoma, WA. NORTHWEST HEALTH CARE LINEN – AUGUST 30, 2006
Bellingham, WA – Approximately 75 agents in full riot gear, SUV’s, Buses and a Helicopter raid this business at 9:00am. 28 workers are arrested in hand cuffs and ankle chains and loaded on to buses. Three women in the group are released on humanitarian grounds, the rest are taken to the Northwest Detention Center in Tacoma, WA. YAMATO ENGINE SPECIALISTS – FEBRUARY 4, 2009
Source: U.S. Customs and Border Patrol CBP STAFFING HAS INCREASED
Source: U.S. Customs and Border Patrol APPREHENSIONS HAVE DECREASED
We are exploring the possibility that these officers are helping to create a culture of fear and following the law enforcement model of Target Enforcement, “Increased patrols where targeted communities live and socialize, which requires greater numbers of officers to be present at all times, thus the need for interdepartmental collaboration. WHY MORE CBP OFFICERS IF APPREHENSIONS ARE LOWER?
TARGET ENFORCEMENT IS A PREVENTION MODEL Lower apprehensions and increased staff at CBP can be linked to a shift from an aggresive enforcement strategy (ICE RAIDS) towards a deterrent model centered around E- verify and Secure Communities Programs.
APRIL 3, 2012 - WHATCOM COUNTY WAS ONE OF THE LAST JURISDICTIONS TO ACTIVATE SECURE COMMUNITIES BY CONGRESSIONAL MANDATE
A Joint task force “gang sweep” of 30-35 Whatcom County youth targeted for active warrants, two police teams, 30 law enforcement officers, resulted in 21 arrests. OCTOBER 2011 - OPERATION SHAKE, RATTLE, AND ROLL
Identified “Gang Members” were targeted by a joint task force raid in Lynden, resulted in the arrest of 16 youth mostly Latino. OPERATION FAIR GAME – AUGUST 2012
A CAMPAIGN TO END RACIAL PROFILING IN WHATCOM COUNTY