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Chapter 8: Northern Transformations,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: Northern Transformations,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: Northern Transformations, 1790-1815
AP US History Chapter 8: Northern Transformations,

2 Postcolonial American Society
By 1789, most people in the United States were farmers Most farmers raised a variety of crops and animals, rather than a single cash crop Provided for the family first, then sold whatever was left over Most farmers worked on the barter system Traded with neighbors rather than using cash Often did other work to supplement farming Blacksmithing, coopers, etc. As farming became more efficient, foreign demand for American farm products increased

3 Postcolonial American Society
Most people lived in rural areas at the turn of the 19th century The five largest cities were all Atlantic seaport cities The only places with populations over 10,000 Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston Standards of living varied, with the poor living very simple lives Homes lacked paint, windows, and had little furniture People used the same bowls and utensils for each meal, but began to become less common even for the poor Shared beds and other living arrangements Very uneven distribution of wealth in the nation Cities had large populations of poor

4 Opening of the Backcountry
When the Treaty of Paris was signed, most land of the United States was possessed by Native Americans As people moved west, the tribes were pushed further and further west, often resulting in violence Some whites assimilated into Native American culture Daniel Boone: opened the Cumberland Gap, dressed in Native traditions Davy Crockett: apparently wrestled bears and alligators Often referred to as “white savages” By 1815, hundreds of thousands had moved to the frontier of the old Northwest

5 The Eroding of Patriarchy
After the Revolution, the society of authority had become one of individualism and democracy Marriages were more for love, not arranged by parents More out of wedlock pregnancies Children received less inheritance because of the dwindling availability of land and resources, lessening the role of parental say in matters Alcohol was a problem in the nation Whiskey was the national drink People drank to get drunk Caused many problems, financially, domestic, alcoholism, etc Eventually, rise of temperance societies called for a ban on alcohol

6 The Transportation Revolution
Travel throughout the nation at the turn of the 19th Century was very cumbersome Few roads were in existence and most rivers were only navigable to a certain point National Road: completed in 1818 Linked the Potomac River to the Ohio River at Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia) Had a very limited effect on travel and prices of goods The steamboat revolutionized the way people and goods got around Robert Fulton launched the Clermont, the first steamboat, on a trip from New York to Albany in 1807 Over the next few years, more steamboats were on more rivers Flat bottom boats could navigate even low rivers

7 The Transportation Revolution
While the steamboat was great for travel and shipping, you had to have water States began to construct artificial rivers (canals) to solve this problem In 1817, construction began on the Erie Canal Built to connect Lake Erie with the Hudson River, thus linking New York and the ocean with the Great Lakes 364 miles from Buffalo to Albany, NY Used a system of locks to traverse the hilly landscape Completed in 1825, helped found some of the largest cities of New York and decreased the price of shipping goods to market by 90% Other canals were also built after the success of the Erie Canal Eventually, the invention of the locomotive started a boom in railroads, makign the canal system obsolete

8 Effects of Transportation
Henry Clay envisioned a market based economy that would unify the nation Known as the American system Farmers in the Northwest were greatly affected by the Transportation Revolution Focused more on a single cash crop and raised more livestock Relied more on purchasing goods from stores and manufactured goods, rather than self manufacturing Began to shift to new farming practices and implements, such as the iron plow Without the need for as many laborers, families became smaller Distinct “male” and “female” work developed More focus on cleanliness and household visual appeal Less reliance on neighbors

9 Industrial Revolution: The Beginning
The steam engine and other industrial developments led to the rise of industry in American towns and cities Led to the availability of manufactured goods at low prices to all, especially factory made clothing Rhode Island System Developed by Samuel Slater in Rhode Island Textile mill employed town’s residents Villages were built around company land that rented it out to the residents to farm Waltham (Lowell) System Francis Cabot Lowell opened textile mills in Waltham and Lowell, MA in the 1820s Employed mostly young, single women Built boarding houses for the workers and required them to send wages ome to their families Many of the “Lowell Girls” went on to become social reformers

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