2Oregon, Washington and Alaska EnvironmentOregon, Washington and Alaska
3EnvironmentTribes of the Northwest were provided natural resources such as cedar and salmon.Cedar canoes were used to fish for salmon and whale.Northwest Coast Natives were considered rich compared to other tribes due to this abundance of resources.
4Social Organization-what factors do you think would affect the type of home a tribe built?Types of homes -different tribes require different types of homes
5Environment and lifestyle Some Native American tribes were agricultural meaning they stayed in one place and farmed the land, growing corn and other vegetables.Other tribes were nomadic, moving from place to place as they hunted and gathered food and other resources.
6Wigwams used by Algonquian Indians in woodland regions were stable homes made from bark, ropes and strips of wood.Earthen houses used by such tribes as the Navajo and Siouz were made by digging out spaces from the earth and then mounding a domed shape over the top.Longhouses used by the Iroquois and Algonquian were similar to the wigwams with bole frames and elm bark to cover. However, the longhouses were much larger, often consisted of a second story and could house up to 60 people.Tepees, used by Plains tribes, were tent-like structures built from wooden frames and covered with buffalo hide.
7LonghousesThe Pacific Northwest tribes constructed longhouses from cedar planks. These houses were up to 100 feet long and 25 feet wide. Layers of wood made up roofs to keep out the rain. The only openings were doors and small holes to let out smoke. Families would have assigned areas but lived together in these homes.
8languageLanguages and dialects vary from tribe to tribe. Many of the original languages have died. Many tribes all over the United States are losing their language as most young people are disinterested in learning and/or maintaining the language of their tribe.
9Values and religionBeliefs and lessons were passed down orally from generation to generation. Like any other culture there are stories to explain the creation of the world and people to basic rules of right and wrong.Like many other tribes, Northwest Coast tribes believed they were surrounded and connect to spirits and the supernatural.A Shaman was an individual who had a direct connection with the spirits. The Shaman treated the ill, ensured adequate food supplies and could influence the weather. If a person became ill it was believed to be an intervention from the spirit world. The Shaman was most often a man but could be a woman. A Shaman’s power was summoned by the use of a rattle.
10Government and LawExchanging of gifts proved wealth/power to others. Clans with the most wealth had the most power. Clans vs. Tribes?
11ClansAll tribes of the Northwest Coast are divided into two or more clans. Babies belonged to the mother’s clan.MarriageIn order to marry a woman a man has to pay her father an agreed amount before the ceremony.
12EconomicsTribes were able to easily attain furs and then trade to the white man.The BlanketThe blanket was a basic unit of trade amongst tribes. Trades between clans were arranged in advanced and were almost a rehearsed act.
13Daily jobsBasket making was another important trade object. Women would try to outdo each other with the complexity and aesthetics of their design. Baskets were also made to store belongings and food. Designs and techniques were passed from mother to daughter.Tribes of the Northwest didn’t need to develop agricultural systems as their environment provided an abundance of natural resources.Easy fishing and advanced storage methods allowed tribes to profit economically. A method of drying food for safe and prolonged storage allowed an easier life for these tribes.
15CustomsCelebrations/Ceremonies - A potlatch is an event or ceremony to commemorate a specific event such as raising a totem pole or appointing a new chief. Music - Used in largely associated with potlatches. Whistles and rattles were used to represent the presence of spirit beings. Drums were also utilized. Drummers would play individual hand drums together. Dance - Important part of ceremonies. Utilizes masks, headdress, and clothing.
16Buffalo horn headdress of the Plains Indians. HeaddressesBuffalo horn headdress of the Plains Indians.Tsimshian bear headdress
17Masks Native American masks were handcrafted and were often created to represent images of animals. Materials for masks included wood, feathers, hair, straw and other materials from their environment. Masks were also modeled after specific people and used to portray the status of the person. These masks are known as portrait masks. Masks could be simple or complex with moving parts such as eyes that open and shut.
18The most complex type of mask is the transformation mask in which an outer mask opens to reveal an second or third mask.
20Art and DesignNative Americans utilized the natural materials around them to decorate their clothing, homes, and to make art.Such materials included bone, teeth, stone and natural paints/dyes.They used human and animal figures as subjects.Realism was not a concern for Native American artists as many designs were meant to represent the mystical or spiritual world.Apache painting on hide
21Art made by women was usually a very balanced and controlled geometric design. Men were responsible for depicting human and animal figures. Both styles were considered sacred art and were important to daily life.Art of Men and Women
22Chilkat blanket - Alaska Functional PiecesNuu-chach-nulth cedar bark hat of a chef whalerChilkat blanket - Alaska
23Animal SymbolsHummingbird – messenger of joy; represents friendship and good luckWhale/orca – associated with beauty and power, traveler and guardianBear – known as the protector of the animal kingdom, powerful, respectedEagle – power and prestige; strong connection to peace
24ColorColor was a very important element of Native American art. Different colors represented different means depending on the group. Use of color depended on the natural resources available to a tribeColorMeaning for Native American ArtBlacknight, underworld, male, cold, disease, deathBluesky, water, female, clouds, lightning, moon, thunder, sadnessGreenplant life, earth, summer, rainRedwounds, sunset, thunder, blood, earth, war, dayWhitewinter, death, snowYellowsunshine, day, dawn
25Natural DyesNative Americans used wool, cotton and other natural fibers for clothing, Art and other household objects. Plants were used to dye materials.
27In 2010 Brian Jungen became the first living Native American artist to have a solo show at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian. In his exhibit, “Strange Comfort”, he uses everyday, recognizable objects to create art pieces.
28Prototype for New Understanding #23, 2005. Nike Air Jordans
34Comic Book Heroes As Native American Traditional Art Posted by Paul Caridad“Native American artist Jeffrey Veregge, a member of the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe who is also of Suquamish and Duwamish tribal ancestry, puts a modern twist on traditional art by creating this series of comic book heroes. Veregge grew up on a reservation near Kingston, Washington called Little Boston where he, like most boys, developed a love for superheroes and toys, but also for traditional art. Combining his passions for comic books, TV, and film with his artistic talents (an honors graduate from the Art Institute of Seattle) and Native perspective, Veregge’s minimalist designs perfectly represent each character.”
38Native American Drawing Make a drawing using elements of Native American design, specifically of the Northwest. Your subject can be traditional or modern. You should have no more than 4 colors for your final piece. You will need to make at least one sketch of your design in your sketchbook before you start on your final piece.