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Warm Up #1 1.What drives humans to continue to explore new areas? 2.What are some dangers of exploration? 3.What are some benefits of exploration?

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up #1 1.What drives humans to continue to explore new areas? 2.What are some dangers of exploration? 3.What are some benefits of exploration?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up #1 1.What drives humans to continue to explore new areas? 2.What are some dangers of exploration? 3.What are some benefits of exploration?

2 European Exploration Objectives: Explain the reasons or motivations that drove Europeans to explore the world - Curiosity of the Renaissance + - Desire for Religious expansion from Reformation + - New Technology and Discoveries from the Scientific Revolution

3 The Fra Mauro map, published c by the Venetian monk Fra Mauro

4 Europeans want to explore the world for many reasons… 1.Religion – Some wanted to escape religious conflicts of the Reformation – Many want to spread their branch of Christianity as part of the competition of the Reformation 2.Growing Population strained Europe – Not enough land for all of the sons (especially younger sons), so they had to find new land – Food shortages, supply shortages = need for new people to trade with

5 3.Humanism – People were looking for personal (individual) glory – Liberal arts education brought scholars from Middle East and Europe together Shared knowledge of worldly pleasures – spices, silks, etc. Shared knowledge of sailing and navigating – Secularism drove people to want riches & worldly goods Gold, spices, silks, etc.

6 4.To find Alternative Trade routes – Italians and Muslims dominated the existing trade routes Italians controlled the roads in Europe & the Mediterranean Muslims controlled the overland routes from Asia (Silk Road) Italians & Muslims were able to make all the profits from the trade – Explorers sought a way to get around the Middle East & Mediterranean Sailed around Africa Sailing north around Russia Sailing west across the Atlantic

7 New Tech… Sextant, Astrolabe and, Caravel with Lateen Sail (like the Nina)

8 Sextant The sextant measures the angle between two objects by using two mirrors. Mirror A is only slightly reflective, so the person can see through it to the horizon. Mirror B it attached to the moveable arm. As the arm is swung, the sun reflects off of Mirror B, onto Mirror A, and then into the eye piece. The viewer moves the arm until the reflection of the sun directly overlaps the horizon (as seen through mirror A).

9 Astrolabe The astrolabe measures the angle between the horizon and a star (or another object). It has a line in the center that the viewer makes parallel to the horizon. Then, the moveable arm of the astrolabe is swung to line up with a star in the sky. Once it is correctly aligned, the arm will point to a degree measurement on the outside ring of the astrolabe, which is the viewer’s latitude.

10 Caravel with Lateen Sail This is a small caravel with lateen sails, much like Columbus’s Nina. The lateen sail made ships move much more rapidly and allowed them to turn in any direction. However, not many sailors were familiar with these types of sails. One example of the difficulty that arose with these sails was when Columbus’s men actually changed back to the slower square sails before they left for their voyage across the Atlantic.

11 Warm up What were the four reasons that Europeans began to Explore the world? – Which do you think is the most important? What or who has inspired you in the past? (what did they inspire you to do?)

12 Exploration required actions of individuals to get started Marco Polo during the late Middle Ages (late 1200s to mid 1300s) - Italy – Travelled over land from Italy to India & China, by boat to Indonesia & Persia – When he returned he brought back goods & he wrote down his findings 1000s of copies were made, one of first books printed by printing press Many people were inspired by Polo: Columbus, Henry the Navigator Henry the Navigator (early 1400s) - Portugal – Interested in exploring, reaching Asia by sea; funded explorations of Africa – Built a university at Sagres, Portugal Brought together Muslim, Jewish, and Christian scholars Introduced new charts, astrolabe, sextant, lateen sail, caravel to Europe

13 Columbus (late 1400s, early 1500s) - Spain – Made the voyage across the Atlantic Ran in to the Caribbean, explored Middle and South America, too Established the Columbian Exchange between “New & Old Worlds” Vasco da Gama (late 1400s, early 1500s) - Portugal – Made the voyage to India by sailing around Africa It was cheaper than land travel and there were no bandits But piracy developed, and seasonal storms made this journey costly

14 Ferdinand Magellan (early to mid 1500s) - Portugal – His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world Proved, once and for all, that the earth is round Found many lands & peoples that Europeans had never heard of Magellan died 2/3 of the way through in a battle to convert indigenous Filipinos to Catholicism Vasco Nunez de Balboa (early 1500s) – Spain – Trying to find a route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Walks through Panama and reaches the Pacific ocean

15 The Northwest Passage Jacques Cartier (1534) – France – Searching for a “Northwest Passage) (from Atlantic to the Pacific) – Explorers coastline and interior of present day Canada John Cabot (1497) – English – Searching for a “Northwest Passage” – North America (off of Newfoundland) finds rich fishing grounds Henry Hudson ( ) – Dutch – Searching for a “Northwest Passage” – Explores region around present day New York City

16 Discussion Questions Review From your Map: list the European countries that became involved in the age of exploration. – (what do these countries have in common – geographically?) Essential Question: What two individuals inspired the Age of Exploration?

17 Activity: 1. Use the Map on page 485 in your textbook to Map the European Land Claims Key England France Spain Portugal Netherlands Questions to answer: 1.What geographic factor do all the European land claims share in common? (Where are they all located on the map?) 2.What explanation(s) exists for the similarity in the locations of the European land claims? 3.Why do you think the land claims end where they do? What/ who might have stopped Europeans in their exploration beyond these points?

18 Activity: 1. Use the Map on page 485 in your textbook to Map the European Land Claims Key England France Spain Portugal Netherlands Questions to answer: 1.What geographic factor do all the European land claims share in common? (Where are they all located on the map?) 2.What explanation(s) exists for the similarity in the locations of the European land claims? 3.Why do you think the land claims end where they do? What/ who might have stopped Europeans in their exploration beyond these points?

19 Map Review Discussion Q’s Why do you think explorers from different countries followed similar routes?

20 Christopher Columbus Analyzing Primary Sources: Introduction: “Whereas, Most Christian, High, Excellent, and Powerful Princes, King and Queen of Spain and of the Islands of the Sea, our Sovereigns, this present year 1492,.... Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the… countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that any one has gone.

21 Columbian Exchange vast global exchange of goods, animals and diseases from the old world to the new world. (started by Columbus…)

22 Feast of Columbus…

23 Warm Up Questions 1.What allowed Europeans to claim territories in the Americas? – For example why did the Spanish claim central America? 2.How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe? How did it affect the Americas?

24 Effects of Exploration 1. Competition Early on example (late 1400s) – Spain versus Portugal – The Pope settled the land dispute with the Line of Demarcation Set a line between Columbus’s exploration & Portugal’s Africa Everything west of the line was Spain’s Everything east of the line was Portugal’s – Issue of land claims finally settled in the Treaty of Tordesillas & Treaty of Saragossa

25 How to stop a war between Catholic Countries…

26 Portuguese land holdings

27 Spanish Land Holdings

28 2. European footholds Exploration for trade routes leads to trade outposts – Ex: Portuguese build small forts along West Africa coast for supplies and trading with natives Trade forts lead to more permanent settlements – Ex: 1652 Dutch build Cape Town to supply ships + encourage immigration to Town.

29 3. New Power Structure Exploration, trade and colonization gives European countries power and riches they had never had before. – (Rise of first ‘World Powers’) Rise of Merchant / Business powers – Ex: Dutch East India Company has full sovereign (political body not controlled by outside forces) powers over lands they visited. Prompts a response from Asian powers… – China, Korea and Japan all try to limit European trading within their borders with mixed success

30 4. Slave Trade Slavery/ slave trade already exists (since ancient times) Develops into a very profitable business as plantations (large land holdings) in the Americas grow. – Why slavery? Labor shortages in New World – (few Europeans and Native Americas) Very large plantations in America Preexisting prejudices

31 Country Exploration & Impacts…

32 Portugal Builds a rim of trading outposts and controls spice trade between Europe and Asia

33 Netherlands Establishes Cape Town and Gains a secure foothold in Africa

34 Spain Takes over the Philippines and take over large portions of South, Central and North America

35 Britain British East India Company uses an army of sepoys (Indian troops) to take over most of India by the late 1700s


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