Presentation on theme: "Warm Up #1 What drives humans to continue to explore new areas?"— Presentation transcript:
1Warm Up #1 What drives humans to continue to explore new areas? What are some dangers of exploration?What are some benefits of exploration?
2European Exploration Objectives: Explain the reasons or motivations that drove Europeans to explore the world- Curiosity of the Renaissance +- Desire for Religious expansion from Reformation +- New Technology and Discoveries from the Scientific Revolution
3The Fra Mauro map, published c. 1450 by the Venetian monk Fra Mauro
4Europeans want to explore the world for many reasons… ReligionSome wanted to escape religious conflicts of the ReformationMany want to spread their branch of Christianity as part of the competition of the ReformationGrowing Population strained EuropeNot enough land for all of the sons (especially younger sons), so they had to find new landFood shortages, supply shortages = need for new people to trade with
5Humanism People were looking for personal (individual) glory Liberal arts education brought scholars from Middle East and Europe togetherShared knowledge of worldly pleasures – spices, silks, etc.Shared knowledge of sailing and navigatingSecularism drove people to want riches & worldly goodsGold, spices, silks, etc.
6To find Alternative Trade routes Italians and Muslims dominated the existing trade routesItalians controlled the roads in Europe & the MediterraneanMuslims controlled the overland routes from Asia (Silk Road)Italians & Muslims were able to make all the profits from the tradeExplorers sought a way to get around the Middle East & MediterraneanSailed around AfricaSailing north around RussiaSailing west across the Atlantic
7New Tech…Sextant, Astrolabe and, Caravel with Lateen Sail (like the Nina)
8SextantThe sextant measures the angle between two objects by using two mirrors. Mirror A is only slightly reflective, so the person can see through it to the horizon. Mirror B it attached to the moveable arm. As the arm is swung, the sun reflects off of Mirror B, onto Mirror A, and then into the eye piece. The viewer moves the arm until the reflection of the sun directly overlaps the horizon (as seen through mirror A).
9AstrolabeThe astrolabe measures the angle between the horizon and a star (or another object). It has a line in the center that the viewer makes parallel to the horizon. Then, the moveable arm of the astrolabe is swung to line up with a star in the sky. Once it is correctly aligned, the arm will point to a degree measurement on the outside ring of the astrolabe, which is the viewer’s latitude.
10Caravel with Lateen Sail This is a small caravel with lateen sails, much like Columbus’s Nina. The lateen sail made ships move much more rapidly and allowed them to turn in any direction. However, not many sailors were familiar with these types of sails. One example of the difficulty that arose with these sails was when Columbus’s men actually changed back to the slower square sails before they left for their voyage across the Atlantic.
11Warm upWhat were the four reasons that Europeans began to Explore the world?Which do you think is the most important?What or who has inspired you in the past? (what did they inspire you to do?)
12Exploration required actions of individuals to get started Marco Polo during the late Middle Ages (late 1200s to mid 1300s) - ItalyTravelled over land from Italy to India & China, by boat to Indonesia & PersiaWhen he returned he brought back goods & he wrote down his findings1000s of copies were made, one of first books printed by printing pressMany people were inspired by Polo: Columbus, Henry the NavigatorHenry the Navigator (early 1400s) - PortugalInterested in exploring, reaching Asia by sea; funded explorations of AfricaBuilt a university at Sagres, PortugalBrought together Muslim, Jewish, and Christian scholarsIntroduced new charts, astrolabe, sextant, lateen sail, caravel to Europe
13Columbus (late 1400s, early 1500s) - Spain Made the voyage across the AtlanticRan in to the Caribbean, explored Middle and South America, tooEstablished the Columbian Exchange between “New & Old Worlds”Vasco da Gama (late 1400s, early 1500s) - PortugalMade the voyage to India by sailing around AfricaIt was cheaper than land travel and there were no banditsBut piracy developed, and seasonal storms made this journey costly
14Ferdinand Magellan (early to mid 1500s) - Portugal His crew was the first to circumnavigate the worldProved, once and for all, that the earth is roundFound many lands & peoples that Europeans had never heard ofMagellan died 2/3 of the way through in a battle to convert indigenous Filipinos to CatholicismVasco Nunez de Balboa (early 1500s) – SpainTrying to find a route from the Atlantic Ocean to the PacificWalks through Panama and reaches the Pacific ocean
15The Northwest Passage Jacques Cartier (1534) – France Searching for a “Northwest Passage) (from Atlantic to the Pacific)Explorers coastline and interior of present day CanadaJohn Cabot (1497) – EnglishSearching for a “Northwest Passage”North America (off of Newfoundland) finds rich fishing groundsHenry Hudson ( ) – DutchExplores region around present day New York City
16Discussion Questions Review From your Map: list the European countries that became involved in the age of exploration.(what do these countries have in common – geographically?)Essential Question:What two individuals inspired the Age of Exploration?
17Activity: 1. Use the Map on page 485 in your textbook to Map the European Land Claims KeyEnglandFranceSpainPortugalNetherlandsQuestions to answer:What geographic factor do all the European land claims share in common? (Where are they all located on the map?)What explanation(s) exists for the similarity in the locations of the European land claims?Why do you think the land claims end where they do? What/ who might have stopped Europeans in their exploration beyond these points?
18Activity: 1. Use the Map on page 485 in your textbook to Map the European Land Claims KeyEnglandFranceSpainPortugalNetherlandsQuestions to answer:What geographic factor do all the European land claims share in common? (Where are they all located on the map?)What explanation(s) exists for the similarity in the locations of the European land claims?Why do you think the land claims end where they do? What/ who might have stopped Europeans in their exploration beyond these points?
19Map Review Discussion Q’s Why do you think explorers from different countries followed similar routes?
20Christopher Columbus Analyzing Primary Sources: Introduction: “Whereas, Most Christian, High, Excellent, and Powerful Princes, King and Queen of Spain and of the Islands of the Sea, our Sovereigns, this present year 1492,.... Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the… countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that any one has gone.
21Columbian Exchange vast global exchange of goods, animals and diseases from the old world to the new world. (started by Columbus…)
23Warm Up QuestionsWhat allowed Europeans to claim territories in the Americas?For example why did the Spanish claim central America?How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe? How did it affect the Americas?
24Effects of Exploration 1. CompetitionEarly on example (late 1400s)Spain versus PortugalThe Pope settled the land dispute with the Line of DemarcationSet a line between Columbus’s exploration & Portugal’s AfricaEverything west of the line was Spain’sEverything east of the line was Portugal’sIssue of land claims finally settled in theTreaty of Tordesillas & Treaty of Saragossa
282. European footholdsExploration for trade routes leads to trade outpostsEx: Portuguese build small forts along West Africa coast for supplies and trading with nativesTrade forts lead to more permanent settlementsEx: 1652 Dutch build Cape Town to supply ships + encourage immigration to Town.
293. New Power StructureExploration, trade and colonization gives European countries power and riches they had never had before.(Rise of first ‘World Powers’)Rise of Merchant / Business powersEx: Dutch East India Company has full sovereign (political body not controlled by outside forces) powers over lands they visited.Prompts a response from Asian powers…China, Korea and Japan all try to limit European trading within their borders with mixed success
304. Slave TradeSlavery/ slave trade already exists (since ancient times)Develops into a very profitable business as plantations (large land holdings) in the Americas grow.Why slavery?Labor shortages in New World(few Europeans and Native Americas)Very large plantations in AmericaPreexisting prejudices