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Roots of Europe Course 25 November 2014 Guus Kroonen INSS, Roots of Europe Center, Copenhagen University.

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Presentation on theme: "Roots of Europe Course 25 November 2014 Guus Kroonen INSS, Roots of Europe Center, Copenhagen University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roots of Europe Course 25 November 2014 Guus Kroonen INSS, Roots of Europe Center, Copenhagen University

2 Discussion Roland Schuhmann (Univ. Jena): “No word that can only be explained as a substrate word.” Martin Haspelmath: “According to Indo- Europeanists, when a word can be either an inherited word or a loanword, an Indo- European origin must always be preferred.”

3 Regular IE layer (pastoral) ‘FATHER’ ‘WATER’ ‘TEN’ ‘WAGON’ ‘WHEEL’ ‘WHEAT’ ‘HORSE’ Irregular non-IE layer (agricultural) ‘GOOSEFOOT’ ‘RYE’ ‘PEA’ ‘BEAN’ ‘CARROT’ ‘TURNIP’ Lexical Neolithic layer in Germanic

4 The IE Homeland Steppe Hypothesis Anatolia Hypothesis

5 BP

6 7.800 BP

7 6.800 BP

8 5.700 BP

9 FARMERS (FBC BCE) HUNTER-GATHERERS (PWC BCE) (Malmström et al. 2009; Kristiansen 2012: 179) Prehistoric Northwest Europe

10 Human Archaeological DNA (Skoglund 2012)

11 CerealsPulses Emmer wheatPea Einkorn wheatLentil Hulled barleyChickpea Bitter vetch Flax The Near East Founder Crops

12 Barley Cultivation by 8000 in Israel Sacred grain in early Indic, Roman and possibly also Germanic society

13 *bariz- ‘barley’ (EUR?, IE?) – ON barr, E barley < PIE ?*b h are/is – Lat. fār ‘grain’ < PIE ?*b h ars – Ru. bórošno ‘ryemeal’ < PIE ?*b h aros – Alb. bar ‘grass’ – Oss. bor ‘millet’ *bewwu- ‘corn?’ (IE) – OE béow ‘corn’, ON bygg ‘barley’ < PIE *b h euH-

14 *gerstō- ‘barley’ (EUR?, IE?) – Lat hordeum ‘barley’ < g h rsd- – G Gerste ‘barley’ < PIE ** g h ersd – ?Pers. zurt / zurd ‘kind of millet’ Not here: Alb drithë ‘cereal grain’, Gr. krīthḗ ‘barley’ < PIE **g h riHd h -, Hittite karas < PIE *ḱers-

15 Emmer wheat Cultivation by 7500 in Anatolia

16 Einkorn wheat Cultivated by 7000 in Anatolia

17 *terwō- ‘wheat?’ (IE) – Skt. dū́rvā- ’dūrvā grass’, Lith. dirvà f. 'field' – MDu. terwe < PIE *derH-ueh 2 - – E tare ‘wild or cultivated vetch’ *hwaitja- ‘wheat’ (G) – Go. ƕaiteis, ON hveiti < *hwīta- ’white’? *kurna- ‘corn’ (IE) < PIE *ģrh 2 -no-

18 Millet In Black Sea region around 5000 Originally from China Possible to use for grazing animals

19 *hersjan- ‘millet’ (IE) – Hitt. karaš- ‘wheat, emmer-wheat’ – G hirse ‘millet’ – Lat cerēs ‘bread, grain’, – Kalasha karasha ‘millet’

20 Rye Cultivated 9000 in Syria Fell into disuse until the Nordic Bronze Age

21 *rugi- ’rye’ (NEUR, NIE?) – Lith rugỹs, Rus rož’, ON rugr, E rye < **rug h i- – Thrac. bríza < PIE **urug h i-?

22 Oat Cultivated in Bronze Age Europe But with genetic links to the Middle East

23 *habarō- ‘oat’ (NIE?) – G Hafer < ?PIE **kopro- – OIr. coirche < ?PIE **korkio- *aita- ‘oat, wild oat/oat grass’ (G) – OHG eiza ‘oat’, OE át ‘oat’, wild oat (weed)’

24 Pea Domesticated by 7000 in Jordan and Anatolia

25 Chick pea Cultivated by 9000 in Syria and Anatolia

26 Bitter Vetch Cultivated in Turkey between

27 *arwīt- ‘pea’ (NIE) – Lat ervum < PIE **h 1 erw- – Gr. erébinthos ‘(chick)pea’ < PIE **h 1 ereb h ind h - – OHG araweiz < PIE **h 1 or(o)wiHd- – Gr. órobos ‘bitter vetch’ < PIE **h 1 orob-

28 Lentils Cultivation in Greece by 7000

29 Not in Proto-Germanic: – Gr. láthuros < PIE **ln̥d h -ur- / **ln̥t h -ur- – Lat. lēns, lentis < PIE **ln̥t (h) - (= G Linse)

30 Broad Bean In the eastern Mediterranean from 6000

31 *baunō- ‘bean’ (NIE): – Lat. faba, OPru. babo ‘bean’, Ru. bob < PIE **b h ab h - – ON baun, E bean < PIE **b h aw-

32 Flax In use as fiber source since at least ! Domesticated by 9000 in Syria

33 *līna- ‘flax, linen’ (NIE): – Gr. línon, Lat. līnum, W llin, Go. lein < PIE *liHn- – Lith linaĩ, Ru. len’ < PIE **lin- *flahsa- ‘flax’ (G) – OE fleax, OHG flahs (PIE *pleḱ- ‘to braid’?) *harzwa- ‘flax’ (G) – ON hǫrr, OHG haro < *kors-uo- (PIE *kers- ‘to card’, Lat. carrō, Lith. kar̃šti )

34 Turnip Cultivated since at least 1500 BC. No archaeological records Region of origin in the eastern Mediterranean?

35

36 *rōbōn-, rōbjōn- ‘turnip’ (NIE) – Gr. ráp(h)us < PIE **rap (h) – Lat. rāpa, G Rübe < PIE **rāp – W erfin < PIE **a-rp – Ru. répa < PIE **rēp

37 Wild Carrot Beginning of cultivation unknown

38 *murhōn- ‘(wild) carrot’ (EUR) – Ru. morkóv’ ‘carrots’ < ?PIE *mrk- – Gr. brákana ‘wild vegetables’ < ?PIE *mrk- – ON mura ‘potentilla, wilde carrot’, OE more ‘carrot’ < ?PIE *mrk-

39 Saltbush, goosefoot Beginning of cultivation unknown Was collected by hunter-gatherers

40 *maldjōn- ‘atriplex’ (NIE) – Gr. blíton ‘purple amaranth’ < *mlit- – OS maldia ‘saltbush, goosefoot’ < *malt-

41

42 CerealsPulses Emmer wheatPea Einkorn wheatLentil Hulled barleyChickpea Bitter vetch Flax What’s Indo-European in Germanic? secondary additions Bean Turnip Orache Carrot

43

44

45

46

47 kurgans BP

48 kurgans BP

49 kurgans BP

50 kurgans BP

51 GERMANIC GREEK ITALIC CELTIC kurgans agriculture

52 SCAND. C.EUR.BALKANS ANATOLIA GERMANICCELTIC PROTO-INDO- EUROPEAN ITALIC GREEK… HYPOTHETICAL NEOLITHIC LAYER

53 ItemGreekLatinCelticGermanicBalto-Slavic peaórobos < *orob- : erébinthos < *ereb-ind h ervum < *erw G Erbse < *orw-īd sandámat h os : psámmat h os : psámmos < *sam(-n̥d h ) sabulum < *sad h - E sand, MHG sampt < *samd h - gourd / cucumber cucurbita < *kukurbit OE hwer- wette < *kʷerkʷád lentilláthuros < *ln̥d h -ur- lēns, lentis < *ln̥t- (G Linse = Lat. lent-) Comparing Neighboring Substrates

54 ItemGreekLatinCelticGermanicBalto-Slavic beanfaba < *b h ab h G Bohne < *b h aw-(n)- OCS bobъ < *b h ab h - hempkánnabis < *kannabi E hemp < *kanabi Ru. konoplja < *kanapi bison, wisent G Wisent < *wi-sund h - OPru. wi- ssambras < *wi-somb h crayfish, crab kám(m)aros, kábouros < *kam(m)ar, *kabar- ON humar < *kumar- leadmólubdos, mólibos < *molubd, *molib plumbum < *plumd h - lúaide < ploud (h) - G Blei < *mlīw Comparing Neighboring Substrates

55 ItemGreekLatinCelticGermanicBalto-Slavic blackbirdmerula < *mesal W mwalch < *mesal G Amsel < *a-msl- sturgeonG Störe < *str- Ru. osëtr < *a-setr sedgeMIr. seisc < *sesk- E sedge < *sak- Ru. osóka < *a-sak turnipráp(h)us < *rap (h) rāpa < *rāpW erfin < *a-rp G Rübe < *rāp Ru. répa < *rēp oreraudus < *raud OHG aruz < *a-rud cloverOIr. seamar < *semar- ON smári < *smēr Comparing Neighboring Substrates

56 SCAND. C.EUR.BALKANS ANATOLIA GERMANIC PROTO-INDO- EUROPEAN HYPOTHETICAL NEOLITHIC LAYER

57 Regular IE layer (pastoral) ‘FATHER’ ‘WATER’ ‘TEN’ ‘WAGON’ ‘WHEEL’ ‘WHEAT’ ‘HORSE’ Irregular non-IE layer (agricultural) ‘GOOSEFOOT’ ‘RYE’ ‘PEA’ ‘BEAN’ ‘CARROT’ ‘TURNIP’ Lexical Neolithic layer in Germanic

58 FARMERS (FBC BCE) HUNTER-GATHERERS (PWC BCE) (Malmström et al. 2009; Kristiansen 2012: 179) INDO-EUROPEAN SPEECH / PRE-GMC Neolithic Northwest Europe


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