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Michigan GLCEs for Early Silk Roads Lesson 7 – W2.1.5 Describe pastoralism and explain how the climate and geography of Central Asia were linked to the.

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Presentation on theme: "Michigan GLCEs for Early Silk Roads Lesson 7 – W2.1.5 Describe pastoralism and explain how the climate and geography of Central Asia were linked to the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Michigan GLCEs for Early Silk Roads Lesson 7 – W2.1.5 Describe pastoralism and explain how the climate and geography of Central Asia were linked to the rise of pastoral societies on the steppes. 7 – W3.1.6 Use historic and modern maps to locate and describe trade networks among empires in the classical era. 7 – W2.1.4 Define the concept of cultural diffusion and how it resulted in the spread of ideas and technology from one region to another (e.g., plants, crops, plow, wheel, bronze metallurgy). 1

2 Early Silk Road during the Han Dynasty We will use a set of maps -- Continents and Regions -- Silk Road Towns -- Present-day Population Distribution -- Precipitation -- Elevation to compare Han China with its nomad neighbors. 2

3 Early Silk Road during the Han Dynasty We will also use short readings and pictures to compare Han China with its nomad neighbors. #8#6 3

4 Early Silk Road during the Han Dynasty #8 #9 In 140 BCE, the Han Emperor sent caravans to trade with some nomad neighbors and sent soldiers to the Great Wall to defend against other nomad neighbors. #10 4

5 Continents and Regions Between 140 and 87 BCE, the Han Emperor sent caravans to Central Asia. 5 At this early time in Silk Road history, the Han Chinese wanted to trade with nomad groups who lived in Central Asia. The Han Chinese had heard about other empires much farther to the west, but they did not trade that far away at first.

6 The Han Emperor lived in Place A and wanted to trade with Place D. B C A D Continents and Regions 6 a.Notice Place A in China. b.Notice Place D in Central Asia. c.Use the scale of miles to measure the approximate distance from Place A to Place D.

7 Use the Silk Road Towns map to mark the location of important places. 7 B C A D Silk Road Towns 1.Put Places A, B, and C onto your Silk Road Towns map. The Han Empire controlled A, B, and C. 2.Put Place D onto your Silk Road Towns map. Nomads lived near D, and the Han Emperor wanted to trade with them.

8 Use a map about population to compare Places A, B, C, and D. 8 Present-day Population Distribution B C A D 3. Which place has more people in modern times? __________ (Choose A, B &C, or D.) A was the Han Empire’s capital in 140 BCE. B & C were fort towns controlled by the Han in 140 BCE. D was a place to which the Han Empire sent caravans to trade.

9 Use a precipitation map to compare Places A, B, C, and D. Precipitation B C A D 9 4. Which place has higher precipitation? __________ (Choose A, B &C, or D.) A was the Han Empire’s capital in 140 BCE. It is located in a solid green precipitation area where there is enough precipitation to raise crops. (Wheat farming needs at least 601 mm or 24 inches.) B & C were fort towns controlled by the Han Empire. D was a place to which the Han Empire sent caravans to trade.

10 Attribution: ki/File:China_agricultural _1986.jpg This CIA map is in the public domain. The agricultural oases in western China get irrigation water from nearby mountains. B C A D 10 Caravans traveled away from Place A in eastern China to Place C in western China. 5. Describe how eastern China differs from western China in this map about “cultivation” (farmlands). N S E W

11 Use this zoomed-in precipitation map to compare Place A with Place D. B C D A Precipitation (zoomed in) 11 When caravans traveled away from Place A, they moved away from cultivated farmlands of the Han Empire. 6. Which place has higher precipitation: Place A or Place D?

12 Use this zoomed-in precipitation map to find nomads. Lands with mm of precipitation are covered with grass. Nomads raised sheep, goats, and horses in these grasslands. B C D A Northern Nomads Northwestern Nomads Precipitation (zoomed in) 12 Northern Nomads lived north of Han China in Mongolia. Chinese Empires built the Great Wall to prevent raids by these nomads. 7. Place Northern Nomads onto your Silk Roads Towns map. Northwestern Nomads lived west and north of Han China in Central Asia, near Place D. The Han Emperor sent caravans to trade with them. 8. Place Northwestern Nomads onto your Silk Roads Towns map.

13 This map shows elevation and where the nomads lived. 13 Northern Nomads Northwestern Nomads Elevation (zoomed in) B C D A Both groups of nomads raised sheep, goats, and horses in the grasslands. They moved their herds to higher elevations in summer. In winter, snow covered the grasslands. The nomads raised horses that were unusually strong; in winter, these horses used their hooves to break through ice crusts and to dig through snow to find grass underneath.

14 B C D A Northern Nomads Northwestern Nomads Attribution: Yeu Ninje at the English language Wikipedia 14 Nomads controlled drier grasslands to the north of China. During the time of the Han Empire, China controlled the areas colored brown.

15 What did the Han Dynasty want to obtain from Central Asia (near Place D)? 15 B C A D Satellite Image We will use short readings to compare agricultural China near Place A with nomadic Central Asia near Place D. We will use pictures to compare agricultural China near Place A with nomadic Central Asia near Place D.

16 First Reading - Agricultural Han China Location: Along the Yangtze River near Place A in the PowerPoint In 140 BCE, farms cover much of the land near Place A, the capital city of ancient China. This part of eastern China has enough precipitation so that farmers can raise grain (wheat and millet). Men work fields using hand tools; they plant seeds, chop weeds, cut the ripe grain, store some grain to plant next year, and separate soft inner grains from hard outer coverings. There also is enough precipitation so farm women can raise mulberry trees. They feed a tremendous amount of mulberry leaves to silk worms. After the silk worms make cocoons, the women bake the cocoons and very carefully unwind a long silk thread from the cocoon. The thread can be longer than two football fields. Women also specialize in weaving the silk thread into light-weight cloth, which is cool in summer and can be used as padding for jackets in winter. Farmers live in brick homes that have rooms for cooking and sleeping, as well as separate rooms for caring for silkworms. 16

17 First Reading - Agricultural Han China Location: Along the Yangtze River near Place A in the PowerPoint The farmers must pay taxes to the Han Empire by giving the government a share of the grain and silk produced on the farm. The Han Empire uses taxes to keep an army to protect the farms from attacks by nomads who invade from the north. The Han Emperor also wants to load grain and silk on camel caravans and take them far to the northwest. There, the caravans can trade the grain and silk for the best military horses in Asia. 17

18 Second Reading – Northwestern Nomads Location: In Central Asia near Place D in the PowerPoint In 140 BCE, nomads live in the grasslands (also called steppes) of Central Asia. Deep in the middle of a large continent, most of Central Asia does not receive enough precipitation for farming. Nomads cannot grow grain or trees. Nomads can raise herds of sheep, goats, cows, camels, and horses that graze in the grasslands. The herd animals provide milk, which women turn into yogurt, cheese, and butter. Herd animals also provide hair (wool) for clothing and tents, as well as hides and meat if animals are slaughtered. Because nomads move their herds, their homes must be movable. Wooden poles provide a strong frame that holds the hide and felt covers of a circular tent-like home called a yurt. Many nomads move to higher elevation grasslands in summer and back to lower elevations in winter. 18

19 Second Reading – Northwestern Nomads Location: In Central Asia near Place D in the PowerPoint Most prized among the herd animals are the horses of Central Asia. These horses are larger and stronger than the farm horses of Han China. Nomads are expert at riding horses and shooting arrows as they ride. Nomad leaders can gather together a cavalry of 100,000 men if they fear attack by opposing nomads. Sometimes, nomad leaders are willing to trade with peaceful caravans that the Han Emperor sends from China. Nomads want both grain and silk, things they cannot produce in their homeland. Fine silk clothing is a symbol of high rank for the leaders, but even simple silk padding is useful inside jackets for the cold winters of Central Asia. Therefore, the nomads will sometimes offer their strong military horses in trade for silk and grain. 19

20 9. Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice. #1 #2 #3 #4b #4a 20

21 #5 #7 # Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice.

22 #1 9. Answers: Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice #1: Farmers in Han China Grain farming in eastern China GNU license: Steve Evans 22

23 9. Answers: Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice #2: Nomads in Northwest Horse and rider in grasslands GNU license: Al Jazeera English, PD Tilman #2 23

24 9.Answers: Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice #3: Nomads in Northwest Nomad’s yurt (circular house that can be moved), grasslands, mountains GNU license, #3 24

25 9. Answers: Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice #4a: Farmers in Han China Silkworm, cocoon, and mulberry leaves GNU license, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Silkworm_%26 _cocoon.jpg, Srithern #4b #4a #4b: Farmers in Han China Mulberry leaves to feed to silkworms GNU license, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Morus_alba_leaves_and_fruits.jpg, Andre Abrahami 25

26 9. Answers: Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice #5: Nomads in Northwest Horse and rider, grasslands, yurt public domain, #5 26

27 9. Answers: Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice #6: Nomads in Northwest Ancient painting of horse and rider in Central Asia public domain in U.S., #6 27

28 9.Answers: Match pictures to Farmers in Han China or to Nomads in Northwest and give reasons for your choice #7: Farmers in Han China Steps in raising of silkworms: Silk worms, mulberry leaves, cocoons public domain in U.S., #7 28

29 10. Prepare to write your own paragraph about farmers in Han China. First paragraph about farmers in Han China: Describe where they lived. Give specific information about precipitation and vegetation in that region. Give specific examples of what they were able to raise in the place where they lived. Second paragraph about leaders in Han China: Describe what they wanted from the nomads in the northwest and what they were willing to trade in exchange. 29

30 11. Prepare to write a your own paragraphs about nomads in northwest. First paragraph about nomads in northwest: Describe where they lived, giving specific information about precipitation and vegetation in that region. Give specific examples of what they were able to raise in the place where they lived. Second paragraph about nomad leaders in the northwest: Describe what they wanted from the Han Chinese and what they were willing to trade in exchange. 30

31 Sources and Picture Credits: Sources of information for paragraphs: Valerie Hansen. The Silk Road: A New History Xinru Liu. The Silk Road in World History John E. Hill. Through the Jade Gate to Rome Pictures and two maps are from Wikipedia: GNU license allows use with citation. #1: Farming in eastern China: GNU license, Steve Evans #2: Horse, rider in grasslands: GNU license, Al Jazeera English, PD Tilman #3: Nomad’s yurt: GNU license, #4a: Silkworm, cocoon, mulberry leaves: GNU license, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Silkworm_%26_cocoon.jpg, Srithern #4b: Mulberry leaves: GNU license, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morus_alba_leaves_and_fruits.jpg, Andre Abrahami #5: Horse, rider in grasslands, yurt: public domain, #6: Ancient horse and rider in Central Asia: public domain in U.S., #7: Raising silk worms: public domain in U.S., #8: Han Emperor: public domain in U.S., #9: Caravan sent by Han Emperor: public domain in U.S., #10: Great Wall in China: GNU license, Jakub Halun Map about cultivated land in China: public domain in U.S., Map about extent of Han Empire: GNU license, Yeu Ninje Lesson authors: Carol Gersmehl and Marty Mater, Michigan Geographic Alliance, Camel and horse drawings come from staff of The Renaissance Charter School, Jackson Heights, NY. 31


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