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Ch 8 Creating the Constitution Compromise – A settlement of a dispute by each party giving up some demands in order to reach a goal. Essential Question-

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 8 Creating the Constitution Compromise – A settlement of a dispute by each party giving up some demands in order to reach a goal. Essential Question-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 8 Creating the Constitution Compromise – A settlement of a dispute by each party giving up some demands in order to reach a goal. Essential Question- What compromises emerged from the Constitutional Convention?

2 Ch 8.1 Introduction Purpose What- We are going to learn about Compromise. How- by learning about the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

3 Members of the Second Continental Congress knew that the former colonies needed to create a central government.

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5 8.1 Introduction A. Articles of Confederation 1.After the Declaration of Independence, Congress tried to unite the states under one national government. 2.Members of Congress were afraid a strong central government would trample their rights. 3.Created Articles of Confederation, a firm league of friendship. 4.States keep their powers. 5.Congress runs national government, each state got 1 vote. 6.Confederate Congress, which had limited powers. 1. Power to :Declare war, raise an army/navy, print (coin) money, set up postal system. 2. No power to impose taxes. They had to ask and states often ignore the request. 7.Second Continental Congress passed Articles of Confederation and then sent the document to each state legislature for ratification, or approval. 8.Final state, Maryland, ratified Articles of Confederation in March 1781.

6 Western Lands

7 Important Questions What worried James Madison about the future of the United States? Why did many members of Congress fear a strong central government? What were some of the government’s powers under the Articles of Confederation? What were some of the government’s limitations?

8 Important Questions What worried James Madison about the future of the United States?  He worried that the states would not work together. Why did many members of Congress fear a strong central government?  They feared such a government would trample their rights. What were some of the government’s powers under the Articles of Confederation?  Coin and borrow money, declare war, raise army/navy, negotiate treaties, could settle disputes between states, ask states for money and soldiers, set up postal system. What were some of the government’s limitations?  Could not impose taxes, had no president or national court system, had no power to settle disputes, collect money or supply troops.

9 8.2 Early Quarrels and Accomplishments Purpose What- We are going to learn about Compromise. How- by understanding the Articles of Confederation early quarrels and accomplishments Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

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11 8.2 Early Quarrels and Accomplishments A. The Articles of Confederation key weakness was that Congress had no power to settle quarrels among states which were mostly about taxes and boundaries. B. Developing Western Lands 1.Confederation Congress planned to sell western lands to raise money. 2.Land ordinance of 1785 set up system for surveying and dividing public lands know as Northwest Territory- included what is now Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin C. Northwest Ordinance 1.Northwest Ordinance of a law that divided the Northwest territory into smaller territories which h was governed by a territorial governor. 2.Created a system for adding new states; banned slavery in the Northwest Territory.

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14 Northwest Territories

15 Congress surveyed the land into squares 6 miles on each side. (townships) Land Ordinance of 1785

16 Each town was divided into 36 smaller sections, 640 acres each. (the cost was a minimum of $1 per acre)

17 People pooled their money in order to be able to afford a piece of land. Land Ordinance of 1785

18 Township Map Sargent County, North Dakota

19 When the population reached 60,000 free citizens, the area could apply for statehood. Ex.) OH, IN, IL, MI, WI Northwest Ordinance (1787) When 5,000 free males of voting age settled an area, it became self- governing. Slavery was outlawed.

20 Moving West After the Revolutionary War Americans began heading west in greater numbers. Thousands of people settled in the lands of the Northwest Territory. Many of these people were farmers from New England, where good farmland was scarce. As the population of the Northwest Territory grew and the region was divided into states, more settlers came from throughout the nation and from overseas.

21 Important Questions What Compromise was made to create and establish the Articles of Confederation.

22 8.3 Shays Rebellion and the Need for Change Purpose What- We are going to learn about Compromise. How- by studying the causes of Shays’s Rebellion Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

23 Daniel Shays

24 Shays’s Rebellion A. Instead of printing paper money, Massachusetts collected taxes on land. B. Farmers who could not pay debts lost their land and sometimes went to prison.

25 A. National Government. 1.Confederate Congress could not regulate interstate commerce – trade between two or more states – so trade laws differed from state to state. B. Inflation 1.Some States printed large amounts of paper money, creating inflation- increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money. 2.Inflation helps debtors- people who owe money – because they can pay back their debts with money that is worth less than what they borrowed. 3.Creditors- people who lend money- were upset at receiving worthless money C. Rising inflation and lost trade led to a depression- a period of low economic activity combined with a rise in unemployment. D. Revolt 1.Some Massachusetts farmers angry over land taxes carried out a revolt that became known as Shays’s Rebellion. 2.Led by Daniel Shays, a poor farmer and Revolutionary War veteran. E. Outcome 1.Rebels were defeated in January 1787; many soon surrendered or were arrested. 2.National government did not have the power to offer much help during the revolt. 3.Revealed weakness of the U.S. central government and the Articles of Confederation.

26 Other problems A. Under Articles of Confederation, Congress could not force states to provide an army, which made it difficult to protect citizens or enforce international treaties. B. Britain had not yet abandon forts on the U.S. side of the Great Lakes, as required by the Treaty of Paris C. Spain closed lower Mississippi River to U.S. shipping, which hurt western farmers.

27 Other Problems A. British Economic Policy A.Closed many ports in the British West Indies to American Ships B.Placed high duties on U.S. exports, such as rice, tar, and tobacco. B. Effects on the economy A.American exports dropped, while British imports rose B.British merchants could sell British-manufactured goods in the United States at much lower prices than manufactured goods made locally. C. Responses 1.Confederation Congress could not set tariffs-taxes on imports and exports. 2.American merchants sought new foreign markets, such as in China and France.

28 A Call for a Convention A. Five states sent delegates to the Annapolis Convention in 1786 to discuss changing the Articles of Confederation. B. Delegates planned a Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in May 1787.

29 8.3 A. Shays’s Rebellion and the Need for Change A.Under the Articles of Confederation, the new nation had serious money problems. B.Congress had power to coin money but states printed money too. C.Money became worthless. B. Massachusetts Farmers Rebel A.Farmers could not pay taxes or debts B.Courts orders farmer to be sold to pay taxes and debts C.Daniel Shays, a war hero, rebels D.Shays’s Rebellion is ended by Massachusetts militia C. A Call for a Convention A.Shays’s Rebellion forces Congress to call a convention to revise the Article of Confederation. B.Delegates meet in Philadelphia in May 1787 C.James Madison is prepared to create a strong central government

30 Important Questions How did the lack of an army affect relations with foreign countries?  United States had no military to motivate or force other nations to respect its rights.

31 Important Questions How did British trade policies hurt the U.S. economy?  It hurt sale of American goods in Britain.  Lowered American exports.  Created trade imbalance with Britain.  Made it hard for American manufacturers to compete.

32 Important Questions What conclusion did Americans reach after Shays’s Rebellion?  U.S. government under the Articles of Confederation was to weak to respond to crises.

33 Big Idea What compromises emerge from the Constitution Convention? What compromises emerge from the Constitution Convention?

34 Study Skills Study 5-10 minutes a night Study 5-10 minutes a night Know Vocabulary Know Vocabulary Understand Organization Understand Organization Create Flashcards Create Flashcards Drill and Practice facts Drill and Practice facts Know the test giver Know the test giver Know your strengths and weaknesses Know your strengths and weaknesses Read aloud/Reread/Write down Read aloud/Reread/Write down Write test questions Write test questions Teach someone else Teach someone else Complete chapter review Complete chapter review Create a chart or graph Create a chart or graph

35 Vocabulary Terms popular sovereignty popular sovereignty federalism federalism legislative legislative executive executive judicial branch judicial branch checks and balances checks and balances Constitution Convention Constitution Convention James Madison James Madison Virginia Plan Virginia Plan William Patterson William Patterson New Jersey Plan New Jersey Plan Great Compromise Great Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise

36 8.4 Opening the Constitution Convention What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding why delegates met to revise the Articles Of Confederation Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

37 8.4 A. Opening the Constitutional Convention A.Constitutional Convention held at Philadelphia’s State House in May B.Called to discuss ways to improve the Articles of Confederation C.George Washington was elected president of the convention B. The Delegates A.Every state but Rhode Island sent delegates, for a total of 55 B.Did not include John Adams or Thomas Jefferson who were representing the U.S. in Britain and France. C.Also not in attendance were Sam Adams, John Hancock, and Patrick Henry.

38 C. The Father of the Constitution A.The most prepared delegate was James Madison, who took good notes and joined in many discussions. D. The Rule of Secrecy A.Delegates needed to be able to speak their minds without fear. B.All windows, and doors were closed and guarded E. Shared Beliefs and Clashing Views A.Committed to Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness. B.Believed in a republic, constitution, suffrage, and more powerful government.

39 Important Questions Why was the Constitutional Convention held?  To discuss ways to improve the Articles of Confederation..

40 Homework Quiz How many states and delegates were represented at the Constitutional Convention? How many states and delegates were represented at the Constitutional Convention? What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention? What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention? Where was the Constitutional Convention held? (city, state, building) Where was the Constitutional Convention held? (city, state, building) Who was the most influential delegate? Who was the most influential delegate? Name two famous men who were at the Constitutional Convention and two men that were not. Name two famous men who were at the Constitutional Convention and two men that were not.

41 8.5 Issue: How Should States Be Represented in the New Government What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding the issues with how states should be represented in government Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

42 8.5 A. How Should States Be Represented in the New Government? A.Virginia proposes to create new document. B.Several issues divided delegates, particularly along state and regional lines. B. The Virginia Plan A.The Virginia Plan, or large state plan, was written mainly by James Madison. B.Called for new constitution that gave supreme power to central government. C.Created Federalism- Dividing power between the states and central government. D.Created three branches, Executive, Legislative, Judicial. E.Including bicameral (2 House) legislature in which representation was based on state population. F.Opposed by small states, because larger states would have more representatives.

43 C. New Jersey Plan A.was offered by New Jersey delegate William Paterson B.Called for new constitution that gave supreme power to central government. C.Created Federalism- Dividing power between the states and central government. D.Created three branches, Executive, Legislative, Judicial. E.Created a unicameral (1House) legislature, with each state receiving equal representation F.Opposed by larger states, because smaller states would have more influence

44 8.6 Resolution: The Great Compromise What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding the Great Compromise Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

45 8.6 A. Resolution: The Great Compromise A.Large and small states could not agree on either plan. B. Tempers Rise A.The smaller states did not trust the larger states. B.They threatened to ally with a foreign nation C. A Compromised Is Reached A.The Great Compromise was offered by Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman B.Delegates eventually passed what had become known as the Great Compromise. C.Created Federalism- Dividing power between the states and central government. D.Created three branches, Executive, Legislative, Judicial. E.Created a bicameral (2 houses) legislature, in which each state received equal representation in the upper house (Senate) and population-based representation in the lower house (House of Representatives).

46 Homework Quiz What plan called for the legislative branch to be based on population? What plan called for the legislative branch to be based on population? What was the compromise called that settled the dispute between large states and small states? What was the compromise called that settled the dispute between large states and small states? Who presented the New Jersey Plan? Who presented the New Jersey Plan? How many houses did the Virginia Plan purpose? How many houses did the Virginia Plan purpose? How many houses in the legislative branch did the compromise include and how would representation be determined? How many houses in the legislative branch did the compromise include and how would representation be determined? –name of house- how many representatives

47 8.7 Issue: How Should Slaves Be Counted What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding the issues with how slaves should be counted Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

48 8.7 A. Issue: How Should Slaves Be Counted A.Now that representation was settled how do we count slaves? B. People or Property? A.Southern delegates wanted slaves to be counted like everyone else for purposes of representation. B.Northern delegates thought slaves were property and should not be counted to determine representation but should be counted to determine taxes. C.Northern also stated that if they are to be counted as people “then make them citizens and let them vote.” D.Under so-called Three-Fifths Compromise, each slave would be counted as three fifths of a person for purposes of representation. C. New Thinking on Slavery A.Many Northern states began thinking slavery was wrong because of the principles of the Declaration of Independence and many states passed laws ending slavery. B.Although many southern were uneasy about slavery they would not abolish it because their economy depended on it.

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50 8.8 Resolution: The Three-Fifths Compromise What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding the Three-Fifths Compromise Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

51 8.8 A. Resolution: The Three-Fifths Compromise A.After much debate Madison proposed a compromise. B.Under so-called Three-Fifths Compromise, each slave would be counted as three fifths of a person for purposes of representation in the House of Representation. B. Another Slavery Issue A.Northern wanted congress to control trade between states and other countries. B.Southern worried that congress would taxes southern exports like rice, tobacco and use that power to outlaw the slave trade. C.Southern and northern delegates disagreed over ending the foreign slave trade. C. More Compromises on Slavery. A.Under another compromise, A. Congress could control trade but could not tax exports. B. northern delegates would wait 20 years before attempting to end foreign slave trade; southern delegates would not ask that laws in Congress require a two-thirds majority vote to pass. C. They agreed to fugitive slave clause

52 Important Questions How did the delegates resolve disagreements over slavery and representation? Each slave would count as three fifths of a person for purposes of representation. Congress would make no laws about Slave Trade for 20 years.

53 Homework Quiz How did delegates from Pennsylvania want to count slaves? How did delegates from Pennsylvania want to count slaves? How did delegates from Virginia want to count slaves? How did delegates from Virginia want to count slaves? What did the two sides agree to do about the slave trade? What did the two sides agree to do about the slave trade? What is the Three-Fifths Compromise about? (Slavery?) What is the Three-Fifths Compromise about? (Slavery?) If the Great Compromise was between large and small states, who was the Three Fifths Compromise between? If the Great Compromise was between large and small states, who was the Three Fifths Compromise between?

54 8.9 Issue: How Should the Chief Executive Be Elected What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding how the Chief Executive should be elected Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

55 8.9 A. Issue: How Should the Chief Executive Be Elected A.James Wilson wanted a single person like a King. B.Others were not happy with that idea B. One Executive or Three? A.Some delegates want one executive to make “clear, timely and responsible” decision B.Others, like Edmund Randolph, wanted three to keep one from abusing power. C. Choosing the Chief Executive A.Some delegates wanted Congress to appoint the President B.Some wanted the people to appoint the President C.Others wanted a chosen special group called electors to do it.

56 8.10 A. Resolution: The Electoral College 1.Delegates agreed on one Executive. 2.Could not break a tie for People or Congress to elect 3.Finally agreed on Electoral College. B. The Electoral System A.Electoral college is a group of electors who cast their vote to elect President/Vice president every four years B.Electoral number is House Representatives plus Senators. C.States use to choose the Electors but now the people do. C. Political Parties and Elections A.Delegates could not predict the advances in communication or the rise of political parties B.A candidate can win the popular vote but lose the Electoral vote

57 Big Idea What was the path to ratification of the Constitution? What was the path to ratification of the Constitution?

58 Study Skills Study 5-10 minutes a night Study 5-10 minutes a night Know the Vocabulary Know the Vocabulary Understand Organization Understand Organization Create Flashcards Create Flashcards Drill and Practice facts Drill and Practice facts Know the test giver Know the test giver Know your strengths and weaknesses Know your strengths and weaknesses Read aloud/Reread/Write down Read aloud/Reread/Write down Write test questions Write test questions Teach someone else Teach someone else Complete chapter review Complete chapter review Create a chart or graph Create a chart or graph

59 Vocabulary Terms Amendments Amendments Antifederalists Antifederalists George Mason George Mason Federalists Federalists Federalist Papers Federalist Papers Bill of Rights Bill of Rights

60 What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by learning how the Constitution was ratified Why- so we understand how compromise affects my life.

61 8.11 A. The Convention Ends A.The hard work designing the Constitution is over but not finished until the states approve it. B. Approving the Constitution 1.Should the Constitution be ratified (approved) by all 13 or majority (7)? They compromised on ¾ (9) states for approval 2.Who should ratify it, state legislatures or the people? They decided to have each state call a special convention with delegates elected by the people. 3.It would not be easy!!! C. Signing the Constitution 1.The Constitution was complete on 9/17/ Not all delegates signed the Constitution left before it was signed and 3 refused to sign. 4.They believe it gave too much power to Federal government or that it did not protect individual rights.

62 8.12 A. The Constitution Goes to the States A.People are worried about a strong national government. B. The Federalists 1.Supporters of the new Constitution were called Federalists. 2.They believed it was strong enough to unite the states without threatening rights. 3.Included George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. 4.James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay wrote a series of papers defending the Constitution. They were called the Federalist Papers. C. The Anti-Federalist 1.People who opposed the new Constitution were called Antifederalists. 2.Some Antifederalists thought the Constitution Convention had overstepped its bounds: others thought the Constitution gave central government too much power.

63 Important Questions What objectives to the Constitution did Antifederalists raise?  Gave too much power to central government.  Lacked a bill of rights.  Convention was not suppose to write a new Constitution.

64 The Federalists Papers A. Defending the Constitution 1.The Federalist Papers were a series of essays defending the Constitution. 2.Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay were the authors B. Arguments 1.New central government would not overpower the states. 2.Many groups of U.S. citizens, with their many points of view, would prevent any single group from controlling the government. 3.Fixed many problems that existed under the Articles of Confederation. C. Widely read and printed, and influential in gaining support for the Constitution

65 Important Questions What arguments in favor of the Constitution did the authors of the Federalist Papers present?  Protect powers of the states  No single group would be able to control government  Was an improvement over the Articles of Confederation

66 The Ratification Fight A. Debate over Approval 1.Needed only nine states to pass. 2.Every state except Rhode Island held a special convention to discuss the Constitution. B. Process of Ratification 1.Delaware ratified the Constitution first, in December Went into effect after the ninth state, New Hampshire, ratified it in June Four remaining states all ratified the Constitution by May 1790.

67 Important Questions How many states had to ratify the Constitution before it went into effect?  ¾ of the states which is - Nine


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