Presentation on theme: "Period 1 1491-1607 On a North American Continent controlled by American Indians, contact among the peoples of Europe, the Americas and West Africa created."— Presentation transcript:
1 PeriodOn a North American Continent controlled by American Indians, contact among the peoples of Europe, the Americas and West Africa created a New World
2 Key Concept 1Before the arrival of the Europeans, native populations in North America developed a wide variety of social, political and economic structures based in part on interactions with the environment and each other
5 As settlers migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed quite different and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environmentsThe spread of maize cultivation from present day Mexico northward into the American Southwest and beyond supported economic development and social diversification among societies in these areas; a mix of foraging and hunting did the same for societies in the Northwest and areas of California
6 Maize CultureAround A.D. 1000, maize agriculture began to spread from Central America through North AmericaMaize was especially popular in the southwestSocieties developed vast irrigation systems (Pueblos in Rio Grande)Maize cultivation transformed societiesLess emphasis on hunting and gatheringLed to an increase in populationVillages were built around maize fields
7 NorthwestRoughly 300,000 natives lived in California prior to the arrival of EuropeansMost of these societies were based on hunting, gathering, and foragingGather nuts, fish, and huntedSocieties tended to be ruled by wealthy familiesChinooksAdvocated warrior traditionsUsed advanced fighting techniquesLived in longhouses which could house many families
13 Plains Indians Most natives lived off of hunting and gathering Lack of natural resourcesLarge, flat areaWith the introduction of the horse, life on the Great Plains was drastically alteredBison hunting became much easierNatives with horses became stronger militarilyNatives in the Great Basin hunted bison and sheepLike natives on the Great Plains, horses helped natives become more powerful
15 In the Northeast and along the Atlantic Seaboard some societies developed mixed agricultural and hunter-gatherer economy that favored the development of permanent villages
16 Northeast and Atlantic Seaboard Many societies were a mix of hunting and gathering, and agriculture and developed permanent villagesIroquois (Present day NY and PA):Adapted to their environment:Burned forests to hunt and grow cropsVillages were built around maizeIroquois were a matriarchal society:Power was based on female authorityWomen were instrumental in councils and decision-makingWomen would tend to crops and oversaw community affairs while men hunted
19 Key Concept 2European Overseas expansion resulted in the Columbian Exchange, a series of interactions and adaptations between societies across the Atlantic
20 Columbian Exchange What was it? Examples of goods: Impact of exchange? The exchange of plants, animals, culture, humans, diseases, etc. between the Americas, Europe, and AfricaExamples of goods:Americas to Europe and Africa: potatoes, maize (corn), tomatoesEurope to the Americas: wheat, rice, horses, chickens, oxenImpact of exchange?In Europe and Asia: massive population growth due to new foodIn Africa: Spanish and Portuguese used Africans from West Africa to be used as slaves in the AmericasIn the Americas: spread of diseases (smallpox), social classes (Mestizos), horse transformed Native life (made hunting easier), Encomienda systemBig Ideas:What were positives and negatives of the Columbian Exchange on both hemispheres?What were reasons that led to European exploration?
23 The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere in the 15th and 16th centuries triggered extensive demographic and social changes on both sides of the AtlanticSpanish and Portuguese exploration and conquest of the Americas led to widespread deadly epidemics, the emergence of racially mixed populations and a caste system defined be an intermixture among Spanish settlers, Africans and Native Americans.
24 Spanish and Portuguese traders reached west Africa and partnered with some African groups to exploit local resources and recruit slave labor for the Americas.
26 Why African SlaveryOne possible answer draws on the different values of societies around the Atlantic and, more particularly, the way groups of people involved in creating a trans-Atlantic community saw themselves in relation to others – in short, how they defined their identity. Ocean-going technology brought Europeans into large-scale face-to-face contact with peoples who were culturally and physically more different from themselves than any others with whom they had interacted in the previous millennium. In neither Africa nor Asia could Europeans initially threaten territorial control, with the single and limited exception of western Angola.
27 African capacity to resist Europeans ensured that sugar plantations were established in the Americas rather than in Africa. But if Africans, aided by tropical pathogens, were able to resist the potential invaders, some Africans were prepared to sell slaves to Europeans for use in the Americas. As this suggests, European domination of Amerindians was complete. Indeed, from the European perspective it was much too complete. The epidemiological impact of the Old World destroyed not only native American societies, but also a potential labor supply.The trans-Atlantic slave trade therefore grew from a strong demand for labor in the Americas, driven by consumers of plantation produce and precious metals, initially in Europe. Because Amerindians died in large numbers, and insufficient numbers of Europeans were prepared to cross the Atlantic, the form that this demand took was shaped by conceptions of social identity on four continents, which ensured that the labor would comprise mainly slaves from Africa.
28 The introduction of new crops and livestock be the Spanish had far reaching effects on native settlement patterns, as well as on economic, social and political development in the Western Hemisphere.
29 In the economies of the Spanish colonies, Indian labor, used in the ecomienda system to support plantation based agriculture and extract precious metals and other resources, was gradually replaced by African slavery
30 European expansion in the the Western Hemisphere caused intense social/religious, political and economic competition in Europe and the promotion of Empire buildingEuropean exploration and conquest were fueled by a desire for new sources of wealth, increased power and status, and converts to Christianity
31 What drove European exploration and conquest? 3 G’s – Gold, Glory, GospelTo spread Christianity – SpainMercantilismMoney and food from the Americas led to population growth in Europe and helped shift the economy to capitalismJoint-stock companies – used to raise $ for explorationsUsed in Jamestown (1607)New technology aided exploration:Sextant – could be used to find exact position on earth – more precise sailingCompassCaravelMap Making
33 New crops from the Americas stimulated European population growth while new sources of mineral wealth facilitated the shift from feudalism to capitalism
34 Improvements in technology and more organized methods for conducting international trade helped drive changes to economies in Europe and the Americas.
35 Key Concept 3Contacts among American Indians, Africans and Europeans challenged the worldview of each group.
36 Big IdeaHow did Europeans view the Natives and justify their treatment of them?How did Africans adapt to life in the Western Hemisphere while still preserving their own cultures?
37 Be familiar with the impacts of the Columbian Exchange – not just food Increase in world trade, permanently connecting two hemispheresIdentify specific goods and their impacts – horse and potatoImpact on Africans – drastic growth in slavery
38 European overseas expansion and sustained contacts with Africans and American Indians dramatically altered European views of social, political and economic relationship among and between white and nonwhite peoplesWith little experience dealing with people who were different from themselves, Spanish and Portuguese exploders poorly understood the native peoples they encountered in the Americas, leading to debates over how American Indians should be treated and how civilized these group were compared to European standards
39 MisunderstandingsMany Spanish and Portuguese did not understand Natives and their culturesNatives were viewed as “Savages” by many EuropeansJuan de Sepulveda:Advocated harsh treatment of NativesClaimed slavery for Natives was justified under ChristianityBartolome de Las Casas:Argued that Natives deserved the same treatment as all other menPlayed an instrumental role in the ending of the encomienda systemEuropeans began to develop a belief in white superiority to justify the treatment of Africans and Natives
40 Portuguese vs. SpanishThe Portuguese were mainly interested in trade only and had little desire initially to settle anywhere, except for trading purposes. The Spanish wanted to incorporate the inhabitants of the new lands under the Spanish crown and, more importantly, to convert them to Catholicism.The Portuguese and Spanish became great colonizing nations at the end of the Middle Ages. Portuguese colonization, which received impetus from the development of greatly improved methods of navigation, began with the establishment of trading ports in Africa and the East, while the Spanish concentrated most of their efforts in the Americas. Both the Spanish and the Portuguese exercised strict governmental control over their colonies and used them primarily as a basis for rich commerce with the parent government. They discouraged them from becoming economically self-sufficient. Read more: colonization: The Portuguese and Spanish | Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/history/colonization-the-portuguese-spanish.html#ixzz3B8CjGVT5
42 Many Europeans developed a belief in white superiority to justify the subjugation of Africans and American Indians, using several different rationales
43 The Spanish settlers had three terms which applied to their dealings with the Indians, the encomiendo, the mitad, and the repartimiento, each indicating a form of injustice. The conquerors divided the country between them, and the encomiendos were rights granted them to hold the Indians for a number of years as workers in their fields or their  mines. Under these grants, the natives were converted into beasts of burden, and forced to do the hardest work without the least compensation. They were obliged to labor all day long under the burning tropical sun, to dive into the sea in search of pearls for their masters, or to toil buried from the light of day in the depths of the mines. It is not surprising that these miserable slaves, accustomed to a life of indolence and ease, perished as if exposed to a killing plague.
44 Encomienda-were rights granted them to hold the Indians for a number of years as workers in their fields or their mines. Under these grants, the natives were converted into beasts of burden, and forced to do the hardest work without the least compensationRepartiemento- it the district officials were required to supply all things needed by the IndiansMitad- every man from the ago of eighteen to fifty was required to render bodily service
45 Encomienda Early 16th century Spanish system of control over Natives in much of the AmericasWhat did it do?Royal grants of land from the Spanish Crown to SpaniardsIn return, the Spanish promised to Christianize the Natives living on the landSpanish gained tribute from the NativesHow were Natives affected?Most were treated harshlyHeavy manual labor – building roads and infrastructureEncomiendas became wealthy due to the discovery of gold and silver
46 Downfall of Encomiendas Many Catholics began to protest the harsh treatment of the NativesMestizos (individuals of Spanish and Native Ancestry) could not be forced to work the encomienda systemIn time, this helped lead to the decline of the systemGradually, the system was replaced by African slave labor, like many areas of the Americas
47 Native peoples and Africans in the Americas strove to maintain their political and cultural autonomy in the face of European challenges to their independence and core beliefsEuropean attempts to change American Indian beliefs and worldviews on basic social issues such as religion, gender roles and the family, and the relationship of people with the natural environment led to American Indian resistance and conflict
48 The Spanish often tried to convert Natives to Christianity Spanish Mission System:Outposts throughout the Americas to help convert NativesOutposts were often military bases as wellDon Juan de Onate defeated the PueblosSpanish established Santa Fe in 1610Spanish priests and government suppressed Native practices that were inconsistent with ChristianitySpanish demanded tribute and labor from NativesMany Africans preserved their culture and autonomy in the New WorldMaroon Communities:Consisted of runaway slaves, many were located in the CaribbeanMany Africans would combine elements of Christianity with their native African religions and customs
49 In spite of slavery, African’s cultural and linguistic adaptations to the Western Hemisphere resulted in varying degrees of cultural preservation and autonomy