Presentation on theme: "Expansion into the Trans-Appalachian West: American Indian Resistance and Slavery."— Presentation transcript:
Expansion into the Trans-Appalachian West: American Indian Resistance and Slavery
Proclamation of 1763 Prior to the American Revolution, the British government attempted to define boundaries between Native American lands and the colonies. The Proclamation states that white inhabitants will not pass the Appalachians. The Proclamation issued by King George did little to reduce conflicts between the Native Americans and the settlers.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1768 In 1768 the Superintendent of Indian Affairs negotiated a treaty in which the natives forfeited their rights to all lands to the south east of the Ohio River. Negotiations were held between the English and the Iroquois only, infuriating many other tribes. English settlers quickly moved into the valley and were met with intense resistance.
Phillis Wheatley, Phillis Wheatley was taken from West Africa as a young girl and sold to John Wheatley in Boston. She learned to read and write and became well versed in English, Greek, and Latin. In 1773, 39 of her poems were published in London (a publisher could not be found in Boston to publish an African American's work). Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral was the first collection of poems published with an African American author. Her conversion to Christianity is evident in much of her work, a predominate percentage of which are elegies.
“On Being Brought from Africa to America” by Phillis Wheatley 'Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land, Taught my benighted soul to understand That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too: Once I redemption neither sought nor knew. Some view our sable race with scornful eye, "Their colour is a diabolic die." Remember, Christians, Negros, black as Cain, May be refin'd and join th'angelic train.
Treaties with the Six Nations After the Revolution, the American government was in need of revenue. Through a series of treaties, they obtained land to sell to settlers. The Six Nations negotiated a treaty in 1784 forgoing their claims to the land in Ohio. In 1789, tribal representatives met with the governor of the Northwest Territory to reaffirm the decision made in The conference was revisited again in 1796 to further solidify the American's hold on the territory.
George Washington to the Senate on the Cherokee, 1790 “Although the treaty with the Creeks may be regarded as the main foundation of the southwestern frontier … in order fully to effect so desirable an object, the treaties which have been entered into with the other tribes … must be faithfully performed on our parts. …” “…information has been received that notwithstanding the said treaty and proclamation upwards of five hundred families have settled on the Cherokee Lands…” “I shall conceive myself bound to exert the powers entrusted to me by the Constitution in order to carry into faith the execution the treaty of Hopewell…”
The Middle Passage 12 million Africans were sold as slaves to Europeans and shipped to the Americas. Most slaves were seized inland and marched to coastal forts. They were chained below deck in ships for the journey across the Atlantic or “Middle Passage,” under conditions designed to ship the largest number of people in the smallest space possible.
Olaudah Equiano: Horrors of the Middle Passage, 1780s Olaudah Equiano was kidnapped from his family when he was 11. After serving in the British navy, he was sold to a Quaker merchant from whom he purchased his freedom in His pioneering narrative of the journey from slavery to freedom was a bestseller, first published in London in 1789.
Olaudah Equiano, 1789: “Is It Not Enough that We Are Torn From Our Country and Friends?” “…I was carried on board. I was immediately handled, and tossed up to see if I were sound… I was now persuaded that I had gotten into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me.” “I was not long suffered to indulge my grief; I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: so that, with the loathsomeness of the stench, and crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat…” “This wretched situation was… aggravated by the gaffing of the chains, now became insupportable, and the filth of the necessary tubs, into which the children often fell, and were almost suffocated. The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable. … “
Confederation Congress: Disposing of Lands in the Western Territories, 1785 At the end of the Revolutionary War, the United States owed huge debts. It also owned vast assets: the lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. To survey and sell them, Congress divided the western lands into townships six miles square. Each township was in turn divided into 36 sections. Each section contained 640 acres. Land was to be sold by section at one dollar per acre.
Land Ordinances of the 1780's In spite of the limited powers of the Confederation Congress, they managed to successfully plan the settlement of the Trans-Appalachian West. Negotiations begun with Native American tribes to persuade them that the Treaty of Paris had eliminated their claim to Trans-Appalachian lands. To officially establish control, three ordinances were issued. Ordinance of 1784: allowed for new states in the territory to be admitted as soon as their population equaled that of the smallest current state, never passed. Land Ordinance of 1785: ensured the government would be able to sell the lands for a profit. Northwest Ordinance: provided for the establishment of territories in what is now Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; prohibited slavery; funds for schools.
Slave Trade Acts Although the Revolutionary War did not end slavery, many people were compelled to slow its expansion. A series of slave trade acts were passed from 1794 to 1807 designed to stop the importation and transportation of slaves in the United States Slave Trade Act: illegal to transport slaves for the purpose of being sold to or from any of the ports of the United States amendment: illegal to work on a ship used for the transportation of slaves Slave Trade Act: illegal to have any interaction with a ship used to transport slaves. 1807: expanded the penalties for anyone involved in the importation of slaves.
Treaty of Greenville, 1795 The Treaty of Greenville was signed at Fort Greenville, Ohio by the United States and a coalition of Native American tribes. It followed the Native Americans' loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and put an end to the Northwest Indian Wars. The United States compensated the Native Americans with money for goods lost in the battles in exchange for land.
Slave Advertisements Though slavery was under attack from many different segments of the American population, it was still alive and well at the turn of the 19th century. Advertisements were commonly found in newspapers and on flyers around the country. This advertisement, from Charleston in 1769, displays how slaves were sold before the ban on the importation of slave was put into place.
Slave Advertisements From The State Gazette & New-Jersey Advertiser, In 1800 there were reportedly 12,422 slaves in New Jersey, the last northern state to abolish slavery. From Kentucky in 1855 as the institution neared its end in the United States.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 When Napoleon took control of France in 1799, Thomas Jefferson worried that the tumultuous situation would hinder trade along the Mississippi River. Jefferson saw the port of New Orleans as necessary to the success of the nation. Jefferson charged Robert Livingston, the American minister in Paris, with the purchase New Orleans. In April of 1803, however, Napoleon offered to sell the entirety of Louisiana for $15 million (the equivalent of roughly $200 million in 2000 dollars). Together with James Monroe, the ambassador to Britain, Robert Livingston agreed upon the sale.
Early Exploration: The Lewis and Clark Expedition, In 1803, President Jefferson asked Congress in a secret address to commission an exploratory expedition across the western United States. The Corps of Discovery, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, was the first expedition to the Pacific coast and back. Jefferson's vision was of expanding the "empire of liberty" and populating it with self-sufficient families and farmers. After Lewis and Clark, a number of other government-sponsored expeditions were initiated to ascertain the wild territories of the American West.