Presentation on theme: "Transformation of the Economy & Society in Antebellum America"— Presentation transcript:
1 Transformation of the Economy & Society in Antebellum America
2 Guiding QuestionAnalyze the causes of the transformation of the American economy in the first half of the nineteenth century.Include: developments in transportation, population, manufacturing and agriculture.(Based on 1989 FRQ)
3 THE TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION & CREATION OF A NATIONAL MARKET ECONOMY agrarian economyMarket RevolutionKey catalysts:(1) transportation improvements – canals, RRs(2) development of textile mills and factories(3) innovations in banking and legal practices(4) Capital – from Europe (esp. Britain)(5) Population growth – 9M in 1820 → 30+M in 1860Not Yet the Industrial Revolution
4 Transformation of the Antebellum Economy Nash, The American PeopleFrom: G. Nash, The American People, 6th ed.
5 TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION & THE CREATION OF A NATIONAL MARKET ECONOMY
6 Eras of Transportation Turnpike & River Era 1790s-1820sCanal Era sRailroad Era 1850s-1940sAutomobile Era 1920s-present
15 National Market Economy: Inland Freight Rates, 1790-1865 Nash, The American People, 6th ed.
16 National Market Economy: The Speed of News in 1817 and 1841 Henretta, America’s History 5e from
17 TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION Impact of Railroadsa) Promoted national trade and economic growthb) Linked Northeast and old Northwest for tradeConsolidation of early short lines leads to E-W orientationChicagoc) Promoted the growth of other industriesIronCoalTelegraphd) Encouraged farmers to specializee) First great corporations in US – model for later large businesses
18 BEGINNINGS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION & CHANGES IN SOCIAL AND CLASS STRUCTURES
19 BEGINNINGS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Factory SystemRise of CorporationsTechnological InnovationsLaborOld Northwest
20 BEGINNINGS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION textilesSamuel Slaterfactory systemSamuel Slater (“Father of the Factory System”)
21 BEGINNINGS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Lowell (or Waltham) Factory SystemFrancis Cabot LowellFirst dual-purpose textile plantsemployeesLowell townsNew England Textile Centers: 1830sPojer (both)Lowell, Mass. in 1850
24 The Growth of Cotton Textile Manufacturing, 1810–1840 Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;
25 BEGINNINGS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION: Legal and Financial Developments CorporationsIn 1800, c. 20 corps US; by 1817, over 1800General incorporation lawsNew York, 1848stocklimited liabilityBanking – paper banknotes
26 2. INVENTIONS & INNOVATIONS Americans were willing to try anything.They were first copiers, then innovators.Patents Approved:1800: 411860: 4,357Pojer – Early 18C Industrialization
27 Eli Whitney: The Cotton Gin, 1791 Pojer – Early 18C Industrialization(Actually invented by a slave)
28 Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle Pojer – Early 18C IndustrializationInterchangeable Parts Rifle
29 John Deere & the Steel Plow Pojer – Early 18C Industrialization
30 Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper Pojer – Early 18C Industrialization
31 Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph Pojer – Early 18C Industrialization1840 – Telegraph
32 Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858 Pojer – Early 18C Industrialization
33 Elias Howe & Isaac Singer Pojer – Early 18C Industrialization1840s Sewing Machine
34 Distribution of Wealth During the American Revolution, 45% of all wealth in the top 10% of the population.1845 Boston top 4% owned over 65% of the wealth.1860 Philadelphia top 1% owned over 50% of the wealth.The gap between rich and poor was widening.
35 The Factory Girl’s Garland 3. WORKFORCE & LABORSkilled artisans vs. unskilled workersworking classImmigrant work forcePojerThe Factory Girl’s GarlandFebruary 20, 1845 issue.
36 3. LABOR & THE EARLY UNION MOVEMENT craft societiesNational Trades’ UnionEarly issues:Child Labor Laws10 Hour Workday Right to StrikeCommonwealth v. Hunt (Massachusetts,1842)Early unions were usually local, social, and weak – and were largely ineffective before the Civil War
37 4. RISE OF AN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY IN (OLD) NORTHWEST Northeastern Agriculture vs. The Old NorthwestDecline in NortheastRise of the MidwestTies between Northeast and old Northwest
39 Guiding QuestionHow did the transformation of the American economy in the first half of the nineteenth century bring about changes to society, including the role of women?(Based on 1989 FRQ)
40 CHANGES TO SOCIETY The market economy changed: Social Class structure The nature and location of workGender roles (Middle class)the standard of livingSocial Class structureWorking classRise of the middle classSocial mobility?Geographic mobilityUPPERMIDDLEWORKINGLOWERWhere do Farmers fit?
41 CHANGES TO SOCIETY Work & Home Lower birthrates “Separate Spheres” end of cottage industrynew gender roles“cult of domesticity”employment opportunitiesEducation of womenOberlin CollegeSpring Fashions -Occupations of Women - Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;Occupations of Women Wage Earners in Massachusetts, 1837
42 POPULATION GROWTH, IMMIGRATION AND NATIVIST REACTION
43 Guiding Question“Throughout its history, the United States has been a land of refuge and opportunity for immigrants.”Assess the validity of this statement in view of the experiences of the English, Germans, & the Irish in the 19th-century urban Northeast.(1987)
44 POPULATION GROWTH 1775 2.5 Million 1790 4 Million 1820 10 Million Jones, et al., Created Equal
45 POPULATION GROWTH Causes Natural increase Immigration Divine, America Past & Present 7eImmigration to the United States,
46 Immigration Major immigrant groups Irish Germans English National Origin of Immigrants:ImmigrationMajor immigrant groupsIrishGermansEnglishWhen did they come?Where did they settle?Immigration to the United States,Pie chart - PojerGraph - Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;
47 Participation of Irish and German Immigrants in the New York City Workforce for Selected Occupations, 1859Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;
48 The distribution of foreign-born residents of the United States in 1860. Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;
49 Immigration & Nativism Native American AssociationSupreme Order of the Star Spangled BannerAmerican (“Know-Nothing”) Party Recent immigrants, from Harper’s Weekly, 1858
50 The results of early 19th Century industrialization in America? ECONOMIC?POLITICAL?The results ofearly 19th Centuryindustrializationin America?SOCIAL?FUTURE PROBLEMS?