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Northwest Conspiracy Raids on Indiana and Panic from within.

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1 Northwest Conspiracy Raids on Indiana and Panic from within

2 Governor Morton Born August 4, 1823( ) Wayne County, Indiana, USA Died November 1, 1877 (aged 54) Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Political party Republican Spouse(s) Lucinda Burbank Morton Alma mater Miami University Cincinnati College

3 13th Lieutenant Governor of Indiana In office January 14, 1861 – January 16, 1861 Governor Henry Smith Lane 13th Lieutenant Governor of Indiana In office January 14, 1861 – January 16, 1861 Governor Henry Smith LaneLieutenant Governor of IndianaHenry Smith LaneLieutenant Governor of IndianaHenry Smith Lane Replaces Lane when he is appointed Senator Replaces Lane when he is appointed Senator

4 14th Governor of Indiana In office January 16, 1861 – January 23, 1867 Lieutenant John R. Cravens (acting) 14th Governor of Indiana In office January 16, 1861 – January 23, 1867 Lieutenant John R. Cravens (acting)Governor of Indiana LieutenantGovernor of Indiana Lieutenant

5 Conflict with the General Assembly Morton was able to keep the state united during the first phase of the war, but once emancipation became an issue in 1862 the Republicans suffered a major defeat in the mid-term elections, and he lost the support of the strong Democrat majority in the legislature. Morton was able to keep the state united during the first phase of the war, but once emancipation became an issue in 1862 the Republicans suffered a major defeat in the mid-term elections, and he lost the support of the strong Democrat majority in the legislature. emancipation

6 Secret enemies had succeeded, “by the most unscrupulous means”, in securing the election, on what was familiarly known as the "butternut ticket," of a Legislature principally composed of men determinedly opposed to the prosecution of the war, and who had deliberately sought seats in that body for the purpose of thwarting all loyal effort, and encouraging the cause of rebellion. These men, from the first, evinced a fixed determination to insult the executive of the State, deprive him of all power, and seize in their own hands the entire control of every department of the State government. Secret enemies had succeeded, “by the most unscrupulous means”, in securing the election, on what was familiarly known as the "butternut ticket," of a Legislature principally composed of men determinedly opposed to the prosecution of the war, and who had deliberately sought seats in that body for the purpose of thwarting all loyal effort, and encouraging the cause of rebellion. These men, from the first, evinced a fixed determination to insult the executive of the State, deprive him of all power, and seize in their own hands the entire control of every department of the State government.

7 Before the new legislature had met, Morton began circulating reports that they intended to secede from the Union, instigate riots, and were harboring southern spies. The atmosphere created by the accusations only worsened tensions between the two parties and guaranteed a confrontation, which was probably already inevitable Before the new legislature had met, Morton began circulating reports that they intended to secede from the Union, instigate riots, and were harboring southern spies. The atmosphere created by the accusations only worsened tensions between the two parties and guaranteed a confrontation, which was probably already inevitable

8 Morton had already made several unconstitutional moves, including the establishment of the state arsenal and the Democrats decided to attempt to reign him in. When the legislature sought to remove the state militia from his command and transfer it to a state board of Democratic commissioners, Morton immediately broke up the General Assembly. He feared that once in control of militia, the Democrats may attempt to overthrow him and secede from then Union. Morton had already made several unconstitutional moves, including the establishment of the state arsenal and the Democrats decided to attempt to reign him in. When the legislature sought to remove the state militia from his command and transfer it to a state board of Democratic commissioners, Morton immediately broke up the General Assembly. He feared that once in control of militia, the Democrats may attempt to overthrow him and secede from then Union.

9 The depression of the public mind during the winter of , seemed only to rouse Governor Morton to still greater resolutions and endeavors The depression of the public mind during the winter of , seemed only to rouse Governor Morton to still greater resolutions and endeavors There was considerable rage among the Democrats, who launched a vicious attack on Morton who responded by accusing them of treason. There was considerable rage among the Democrats, who launched a vicious attack on Morton who responded by accusing them of treason.

10 About the commencement of the year, a wide-spread and formidable western conspiracy, in aid of the Southern Rebellion, was discovered to exist in most of the loyal States, known, in some places, as the "Star in the West," in others, as the " Self Protecting Brothers," " Sons of Liberty," etc., but most generally, as " The Order of American Knights," in affiliation with the southern society of " Knights of the Golden Circle." The order became quite popular in the southern counties of Indiana, and its members were especially virulent in denunciation of the administration, the "abolition war," and Governor Morton. About the commencement of the year, a wide-spread and formidable western conspiracy, in aid of the Southern Rebellion, was discovered to exist in most of the loyal States, known, in some places, as the "Star in the West," in others, as the " Self Protecting Brothers," " Sons of Liberty," etc., but most generally, as " The Order of American Knights," in affiliation with the southern society of " Knights of the Golden Circle." The order became quite popular in the southern counties of Indiana, and its members were especially virulent in denunciation of the administration, the "abolition war," and Governor Morton.

11 Democratic accusations Against him they especially charged that he was instrumental in procuring the imposition, by Congress, of oppressive taxation; and, also, corruption in the appointment of the first State quartermaster-general; they had the “meanness” to accuse Governor Morton of appropriating, secretly, to his own use, the county and personal donations made to soldiers in camp ; although, the governor, as was well known, had borrowed on his own responsibility $600,000, with which he had paid bounties to regiments, which had refused to obey marching orders, unless they received the money. Against him they especially charged that he was instrumental in procuring the imposition, by Congress, of oppressive taxation; and, also, corruption in the appointment of the first State quartermaster-general; they had the “meanness” to accuse Governor Morton of appropriating, secretly, to his own use, the county and personal donations made to soldiers in camp ; although, the governor, as was well known, had borrowed on his own responsibility $600,000, with which he had paid bounties to regiments, which had refused to obey marching orders, unless they received the money.

12 Following the suppression of the General Assembly in 1862, Morton asked General Henry B. Carrington for assistance organizing the state's levies for service. Morton established an intelligence network headed by Carrington to deal with rebel sympathizers, the Knights of the Golden Circle, Democrats, and anyone opposed the Union war effort. While Carrington succeeded in keeping the state secure, his operatives also carried out arbitrary arrests, suppressed freedom of speech and freedom of association, and generally maintained a repressive control of southern-sympathetic minority His intelligence sources were recruited from disgruntled officials and unsolicited informers who gathered hearsay and unreliable information generally more valuable for political than military uses. Following the suppression of the General Assembly in 1862, Morton asked General Henry B. Carrington for assistance organizing the state's levies for service. Morton established an intelligence network headed by Carrington to deal with rebel sympathizers, the Knights of the Golden Circle, Democrats, and anyone opposed the Union war effort. While Carrington succeeded in keeping the state secure, his operatives also carried out arbitrary arrests, suppressed freedom of speech and freedom of association, and generally maintained a repressive control of southern-sympathetic minority His intelligence sources were recruited from disgruntled officials and unsolicited informers who gathered hearsay and unreliable information generally more valuable for political than military uses.Henry B. CarringtonKnights of the Golden CircleHenry B. CarringtonKnights of the Golden Circle

13 The Knights of the Golden Circle (KGC) was a pre–Civil War, pro-Southern secret society founded in Ohio in 1854 by George W. L. Bickley, a Virginian, who soon moved the KGC to the South. Members were known as Copperheads. Wishing to extend slavery into Mexico and to form a country that surrounded the Gulf of Mexico, a "golden circle," they opposed abolition and fought for secession. KGC was reorganized in 1863 as the Order of American Knights, and again in 1864 as the Order of the Sons of Liberty. Republicans tried to discredit Democrats by associating them with the KGC; their efforts failed, making themselves look bad instead. The Knights of the Golden Circle (KGC) was a pre–Civil War, pro-Southern secret society founded in Ohio in 1854 by George W. L. Bickley, a Virginian, who soon moved the KGC to the South. Members were known as Copperheads. Wishing to extend slavery into Mexico and to form a country that surrounded the Gulf of Mexico, a "golden circle," they opposed abolition and fought for secession. KGC was reorganized in 1863 as the Order of American Knights, and again in 1864 as the Order of the Sons of Liberty. Republicans tried to discredit Democrats by associating them with the KGC; their efforts failed, making themselves look bad instead.VirginianKGC secessionVirginianKGC secession

14 The American Civil War had been ravaging the United States for three years in 1863, and there was already widespread opposition to it, much of it in the Old Northwest, the area compromising of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. It had much sympathy for the Sons of Liberty- a pro-Confederate organization operating in Kentucky. There was no man, more opposed to the War, and the Lincoln Administration as a whole than Ohio Congressman Clement Vallandigham (D-OH). The American Civil War had been ravaging the United States for three years in 1863, and there was already widespread opposition to it, much of it in the Old Northwest, the area compromising of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. It had much sympathy for the Sons of Liberty- a pro-Confederate organization operating in Kentucky. There was no man, more opposed to the War, and the Lincoln Administration as a whole than Ohio Congressman Clement Vallandigham (D-OH).

15 President Lincoln was so troubled by the increasing opposition to this War in Ohio that he ordered General Ambrose Burnside to take command of the Military District of Ohio, Burnside was a rabid-anti Copperhead, and issued General Order 38, making sympathy for the Confederate States illegal. That did not Stop Congressman Vallandigham. Vallandigham made an impassioned speech, to many thousands of Ohio Democrats in Cleveland, Ohio. He denounced the War as a war to "free Southern blacks, but enslave Southern Whites", and called for Abraham Lincoln's impeachment. That was the last straw for Burnside, and Vallandigham was arrested by Federal Soldiers President Lincoln was so troubled by the increasing opposition to this War in Ohio that he ordered General Ambrose Burnside to take command of the Military District of Ohio, Burnside was a rabid-anti Copperhead, and issued General Order 38, making sympathy for the Confederate States illegal. That did not Stop Congressman Vallandigham. Vallandigham made an impassioned speech, to many thousands of Ohio Democrats in Cleveland, Ohio. He denounced the War as a war to "free Southern blacks, but enslave Southern Whites", and called for Abraham Lincoln's impeachment. That was the last straw for Burnside, and Vallandigham was arrested by Federal Soldiers

16 Vallandigham was personally against Slavery, but viewed it as a right to the South. That belief was widespread around the Northwest. Vallandigham was personally against Slavery, but viewed it as a right to the South. That belief was widespread around the Northwest.

17 He had been sentenced to Prison for two years, but instead decided to banish him to Confederate Tennessee. Vallandigham did not stay long, the Confederacy had stashed him to Canada on a steamer, where Vallandigham declared his intention to run for Governor of Ohio. Ohio Democrats, outraged at Vallandigham's treatment by Lincoln, easily nominated him for Governor. He had been sentenced to Prison for two years, but instead decided to banish him to Confederate Tennessee. Vallandigham did not stay long, the Confederacy had stashed him to Canada on a steamer, where Vallandigham declared his intention to run for Governor of Ohio. Ohio Democrats, outraged at Vallandigham's treatment by Lincoln, easily nominated him for Governor.

18 The Democratic Party set its Convention destination to be Chicago, Illinois. George McClellan seemed to be the only nominee all factions could seem to agree on. But one surprise guest shook it up- Clement Vallandigham, the Democratic Governor of Ohio. Vallandigham took the stage, declaring his candidacy, and giving an impassioned speech against the War, and Lincoln. He even went as far to say that if Lincoln did not negotiate with the Confederacy, Ohio should leave the Union as well. When Lincoln took word of this, he took drastic measures. Twenty Pinkerton Agents were dispatched to arrest the Ohio Governor. The Democratic Party set its Convention destination to be Chicago, Illinois. George McClellan seemed to be the only nominee all factions could seem to agree on. But one surprise guest shook it up- Clement Vallandigham, the Democratic Governor of Ohio. Vallandigham took the stage, declaring his candidacy, and giving an impassioned speech against the War, and Lincoln. He even went as far to say that if Lincoln did not negotiate with the Confederacy, Ohio should leave the Union as well. When Lincoln took word of this, he took drastic measures. Twenty Pinkerton Agents were dispatched to arrest the Ohio Governor.

19 Morton and Carrington worked to forestall the Order’s activities in that state and Kentucky. Their star spy was Felix G. Stidger of Kentucky who managed to get himself named Grand Secretary of the Order for Kentucky and worked closely with the leaders of both states. Stidger reports that Dr. William A. Bowles, a “General” of the Order for Indiana, disclosed to him the goals of the conspiracy Morton and Carrington worked to forestall the Order’s activities in that state and Kentucky. Their star spy was Felix G. Stidger of Kentucky who managed to get himself named Grand Secretary of the Order for Kentucky and worked closely with the leaders of both states. Stidger reports that Dr. William A. Bowles, a “General” of the Order for Indiana, disclosed to him the goals of the conspiracy He told me that the forces of Indiana and Ohio would concentrate in Kentucky, and make Kentucky their battle- ground, and that the forces of Illinois would proceed to St. Louis, and cooperate with those of Missouri; that Illinois would furnish 50,000 men, Missouri 30,000 men, and that the rebel General Sterling Price would invade Missouri with 20,000 troops, and that with the 100,000 men they could occupy and permanently hold Missouri... He told me that the forces of Indiana and Ohio would concentrate in Kentucky, and make Kentucky their battle- ground, and that the forces of Illinois would proceed to St. Louis, and cooperate with those of Missouri; that Illinois would furnish 50,000 men, Missouri 30,000 men, and that the rebel General Sterling Price would invade Missouri with 20,000 troops, and that with the 100,000 men they could occupy and permanently hold Missouri...

20 NORTHWEST CONSPIRACY. Military reversals in 1863–1864 led Confederates to promote insurrection in the Northwest. The plan relied on the Sons of Liberty and other Northern sympathizers and called for the liberation of Confederate prisoners from northern prison camps. Insurrectionists would use weapons from federal arsenals to arm themselves and overthrow the governments of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. With a Northwestern confederacy allied with the pre- existing Confederate states, a dismembered North would be forced to surrender. Military reversals in 1863–1864 led Confederates to promote insurrection in the Northwest. The plan relied on the Sons of Liberty and other Northern sympathizers and called for the liberation of Confederate prisoners from northern prison camps. Insurrectionists would use weapons from federal arsenals to arm themselves and overthrow the governments of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. With a Northwestern confederacy allied with the pre- existing Confederate states, a dismembered North would be forced to surrender.

21 Stidger’s work would result in the breaking up of the Order in Indiana and Kentucky, with most of the leaders arrested in August of Several, including Bowles, would be sentenced to death by a military commission in Indianapolis later that year, but would escape the hangman by presidential intervention. Tucker’s “head of land operations”, Dick Barret, would be listed as one of the co-conspirators in the charges against Harrison H. Dodd of Indiana, Grand Commander of the Order for that state. Dodd did not require presidential clemency, however, as he escaped from custody and fled to Canada during the trial. Stidger’s work would result in the breaking up of the Order in Indiana and Kentucky, with most of the leaders arrested in August of Several, including Bowles, would be sentenced to death by a military commission in Indianapolis later that year, but would escape the hangman by presidential intervention. Tucker’s “head of land operations”, Dick Barret, would be listed as one of the co-conspirators in the charges against Harrison H. Dodd of Indiana, Grand Commander of the Order for that state. Dodd did not require presidential clemency, however, as he escaped from custody and fled to Canada during the trial.

22 Pro Lincoln Copperhead Cartoon

23 Call to Arms "So boys answer when we call; make our legions strong. Knights of the Golden Circle come and join the Rebel throng. We'll raise the banner high once more and give the rebel yell; Come follow us to victory or march with us through hell." "So boys answer when we call; make our legions strong. Knights of the Golden Circle come and join the Rebel throng. We'll raise the banner high once more and give the rebel yell; Come follow us to victory or march with us through hell."

24 MORGAN'S RAIDERS! MORGAN'S RAIDERS! They're headed this way! They're headed this way! Hide the Horses! Women & Children, too! Hide the Horses! Women & Children, too! Men, gather your weapons! Men, gather your weapons!

25 Those words of warning spread throughout southern Indiana and as far north as Indianapolis in the heat of early July The Civil War was headed north into Indiana under the command of General John Hunt Morgan and his band of 2,000 cavalrymen. They were known as Morgan's Raiders! Those words of warning spread throughout southern Indiana and as far north as Indianapolis in the heat of early July The Civil War was headed north into Indiana under the command of General John Hunt Morgan and his band of 2,000 cavalrymen. They were known as Morgan's Raiders!

26 Morgan’s Raiders route

27 The Raid Begins Morgan had sent spy Thomas Hines and a party of 25 Confederates (posing as a Union patrol) on a secret mission into Indiana in June to determine if the local Copperheads would support or join Morgan's impending raid. After visiting the local Copperhead leader, Dr. William A. Bowles, Hines learned that no desired support would be forthcoming. He and his scouts were soon identified as actually being Confederates, and, in a small skirmish near Leavenworth, Indiana, Hines had to abandon his men as he swam across the Ohio River under gunfire. He wandered around Kentucky for a week seeking information on Morgan's whereabouts. Morgan had sent spy Thomas Hines and a party of 25 Confederates (posing as a Union patrol) on a secret mission into Indiana in June to determine if the local Copperheads would support or join Morgan's impending raid. After visiting the local Copperhead leader, Dr. William A. Bowles, Hines learned that no desired support would be forthcoming. He and his scouts were soon identified as actually being Confederates, and, in a small skirmish near Leavenworth, Indiana, Hines had to abandon his men as he swam across the Ohio River under gunfire. He wandered around Kentucky for a week seeking information on Morgan's whereabouts.Thomas Hinessecret mission into Indiana CopperheadsLeavenworth, IndianaThomas Hinessecret mission into Indiana CopperheadsLeavenworth, Indiana

28 Hines Raid

29 By now reduced to 1,800 men, Morgan's main column had arrived on the morning of July 8 at Brandenburg, Kentucky, a small town along the Ohio River, where Hines rejoined them. Here, the raiders seized two steamboats, the John B. McCombs and the Alice Dean. Morgan, against Bragg's strict orders, transported his command across the river to Indiana, landing just east of Mauckport. A small company of Indiana home guards contested the crossing with an artillery piece, as did a riverboat carrying a six-pounder. Morgan chased off the local defenders, capturing a sizeable portion as well as their guns. After burning the Alice Dean and sending the John B. McCombs downriver with instructions not to pursue him, Morgan headed away from the river. By now reduced to 1,800 men, Morgan's main column had arrived on the morning of July 8 at Brandenburg, Kentucky, a small town along the Ohio River, where Hines rejoined them. Here, the raiders seized two steamboats, the John B. McCombs and the Alice Dean. Morgan, against Bragg's strict orders, transported his command across the river to Indiana, landing just east of Mauckport. A small company of Indiana home guards contested the crossing with an artillery piece, as did a riverboat carrying a six-pounder. Morgan chased off the local defenders, capturing a sizeable portion as well as their guns. After burning the Alice Dean and sending the John B. McCombs downriver with instructions not to pursue him, Morgan headed away from the river.Brandenburg, Kentucky steamboatsAlice DeanMauckporthome guardsartillery piece riverboatAlice DeanBrandenburg, Kentucky steamboatsAlice DeanMauckporthome guardsartillery piece riverboatAlice Dean

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31 Captured steamboats

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33 Governor Oliver P. Morton worked feverishly to organize Indiana's defense, calling for able-bodied men to take up arms and form militia companies. Thousands responded and organized themselves into companies and regiments. Col. Lewis Jordan took command of the 450 members of the Harrison County Home Guard (Sixth Regiment, Indiana Legion), consisting of poorly trained civilians with a motley collection of arms. His goal was to delay Morgan long enough for Union reinforcements to arrive. Governor Oliver P. Morton worked feverishly to organize Indiana's defense, calling for able-bodied men to take up arms and form militia companies. Thousands responded and organized themselves into companies and regiments. Col. Lewis Jordan took command of the 450 members of the Harrison County Home Guard (Sixth Regiment, Indiana Legion), consisting of poorly trained civilians with a motley collection of arms. His goal was to delay Morgan long enough for Union reinforcements to arrive. GovernorOliver P. MortonCol.Harrison County GovernorOliver P. MortonCol.Harrison County Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, commander of the Department of the Ohio with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio, quickly organized local Federal troops and home militia to cut off Morgan's routes back to the South. Morgan headed northward on Mauckport Road, with another brother, Col. Richard Morgan, leading the forward elements. On July 9, one mile south of Corydon, the county seat of Harrison County, his advance guard encountered Jordan's small force, drawn in a battle line behind a hastily thrown up barricade of logs. Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, commander of the Department of the Ohio with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio, quickly organized local Federal troops and home militia to cut off Morgan's routes back to the South. Morgan headed northward on Mauckport Road, with another brother, Col. Richard Morgan, leading the forward elements. On July 9, one mile south of Corydon, the county seat of Harrison County, his advance guard encountered Jordan's small force, drawn in a battle line behind a hastily thrown up barricade of logs. Maj. Gen.Ambrose Burnside Department of the OhioCincinnati, OhioCorydoncounty seatbarricade Maj. Gen.Ambrose Burnside Department of the OhioCincinnati, OhioCorydoncounty seatbarricade

34 Battle of Corydon Unaware of the size of the invading army, four companies of the 6th and 8th Regiments of the Legion, totaling about one hundred men, attempted to prevent the Confederates from crossing the Ohio River into Indiana, but were overcome by superior artillery fire, killing two of the defenders. The units retreated northward where they met with the main body of the 6th Regiment under the command of Col. Lewis Jordan. Along with the townspeople, they constructed breastworks that formed a defensive line south of Corydon. Despite promises of reinforcements from regional Legion commanders in New Albany, only about 450 men (consisting almost entirely of locals) were defending the town. Unaware of the size of the invading army, four companies of the 6th and 8th Regiments of the Legion, totaling about one hundred men, attempted to prevent the Confederates from crossing the Ohio River into Indiana, but were overcome by superior artillery fire, killing two of the defenders. The units retreated northward where they met with the main body of the 6th Regiment under the command of Col. Lewis Jordan. Along with the townspeople, they constructed breastworks that formed a defensive line south of Corydon. Despite promises of reinforcements from regional Legion commanders in New Albany, only about 450 men (consisting almost entirely of locals) were defending the town.ConfederatesOhio RiverNew AlbanyConfederatesOhio RiverNew Albany

35 Nearing Corydon As the raiders approached from the south, the advance elements formed a battle line and launched a frontal attack and an unsuccessful flanking movement against the east side of the Legion's works. Reinforcements and artillery soon arrived with the main body of Confederate troops, giving the attackers a strong numerical superiority. With the support of the artillery, a pincer movement caused the Legion to abandon their position to avoid being surrounded. A large part of the Legion were captured as they attempted to escape from the town, while Col. Jordon and others regrouped downtown As the raiders approached from the south, the advance elements formed a battle line and launched a frontal attack and an unsuccessful flanking movement against the east side of the Legion's works. Reinforcements and artillery soon arrived with the main body of Confederate troops, giving the attackers a strong numerical superiority. With the support of the artillery, a pincer movement caused the Legion to abandon their position to avoid being surrounded. A large part of the Legion were captured as they attempted to escape from the town, while Col. Jordon and others regrouped downtownfrontal attack flanking movement pincer movementfrontal attack flanking movement pincer movement

36 Battle set

37 Surrender Confederates then seized the Legion's commissary supplies on the edge of town, and fired two warning shots into the downtown from their artillery, convincing Jordan that continued resistance was futile and leading him to surrender his force and Corydon. Confederates then seized the Legion's commissary supplies on the edge of town, and fired two warning shots into the downtown from their artillery, convincing Jordan that continued resistance was futile and leading him to surrender his force and Corydon.

38 Although the short battle cost the cavalry twice as many casualties as the outnumbered militia units, the battle resulted in a Confederate victory, which enabled Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan to secure supplies and money before continuing his raid through Indiana and into Ohio. Although the short battle cost the cavalry twice as many casualties as the outnumbered militia units, the battle resulted in a Confederate victory, which enabled Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan to secure supplies and money before continuing his raid through Indiana and into Ohio.Brig. Gen.John Hunt MorganOhioBrig. Gen.John Hunt MorganOhio

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40 Morgan's soldiers then traveled east and reached Vienna on July 10, where they burned a railroad bridge and depot, and tapped a telegraph line. After spending the night in Lexington, they headed to the northeast, terrorizing the small towns along the way, including Vernon, Dupont, New Pekin, Salem, and Versailles. Morgan's soldiers then traveled east and reached Vienna on July 10, where they burned a railroad bridge and depot, and tapped a telegraph line. After spending the night in Lexington, they headed to the northeast, terrorizing the small towns along the way, including Vernon, Dupont, New Pekin, Salem, and Versailles.Dupont New PekinSalemVersaillesDupont New PekinSalemVersailles Leaving Corydon

41 In Versailles a group of freebooters invaded the local Masonic Lodge and lifted the Lodge's silver coin jewelry. Morgan, himself a Mason, ordered the jewels returned, punishing the thievery of his own men. In Versailles a group of freebooters invaded the local Masonic Lodge and lifted the Lodge's silver coin jewelry. Morgan, himself a Mason, ordered the jewels returned, punishing the thievery of his own men.Versailles

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43 On July 11, while crossing Blue River near New Pekin, Confederate Capt. William J. Davis and some of his men were captured by 73rd Indiana Infantry and a detachment of the 5th U.S. Regulars. Davis and several other soldiers were taken to New Albany and secured in the county jail. On July 11, while crossing Blue River near New Pekin, Confederate Capt. William J. Davis and some of his men were captured by 73rd Indiana Infantry and a detachment of the 5th U.S. Regulars. Davis and several other soldiers were taken to New Albany and secured in the county jail.73rd Indiana InfantryNew Albany73rd Indiana InfantryNew Albany

44 Entering Salem the next day, Morgan immediately took possession of the town and placed guards over the stores and streets. His cavalrymen burned the large brick depot, along with all the railcars on the track and the railroad bridges on each side of town. They demanded taxes from area flour and grist mills. After looting stores and taking about $500, they departed in the afternoon. Morgan finally left Indiana at Harrison, closely pursued by Federal cavalry Entering Salem the next day, Morgan immediately took possession of the town and placed guards over the stores and streets. His cavalrymen burned the large brick depot, along with all the railcars on the track and the railroad bridges on each side of town. They demanded taxes from area flour and grist mills. After looting stores and taking about $500, they departed in the afternoon. Morgan finally left Indiana at Harrison, closely pursued by Federal cavalryHarrison

45 Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. (Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than 200 of his men succeeded in crossing.) Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender. Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. (Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than 200 of his men succeeded in crossing.) Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender. Buffington IslandOhio RiverWest VirginiaCamp Douglas Prisoner of WarChicago Salineville, Ohio Buffington IslandOhio RiverWest VirginiaCamp Douglas Prisoner of WarChicago Salineville, Ohio

46 On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning. On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning.Thomas HinesOhio PenitentiaryThomas HinesOhio Penitentiary

47 Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety to the South Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety to the South

48 Final raids for Morgan After his return from Ohio, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. On August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. After his return from Ohio, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. On August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. However the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky, but his men lacked discipline and he was either not willing or able to control them, leading to open pillaging as well as high casualties However the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky, but his men lacked discipline and he was either not willing or able to control them, leading to open pillaging as well as high casualties

49 He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee.Knoxville, TennesseeKnoxville, Tennessee On September 4, 1864, he was surprised and killed while attempting to escape capture during a Union raid on Greeneville, Tennessee. His men always believed that he had been murdered to prevent a second escape from prison, but it seems he was simply shot because he refused to halt. On September 4, 1864, he was surprised and killed while attempting to escape capture during a Union raid on Greeneville, Tennessee. His men always believed that he had been murdered to prevent a second escape from prison, but it seems he was simply shot because he refused to halt.Greeneville, TennesseeGreeneville, Tennessee

50 Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war.

51 Morgan's Raid netted few positive results for the Southern military. It did provide some hope to Confederate civilians that their military could still succeed following the Northern victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in early July It also caused a great deal of fear among Indiana and Ohio residents and cost several of these people some personal property that the raiders had seized. Morgan's Raid netted few positive results for the Southern military. It did provide some hope to Confederate civilians that their military could still succeed following the Northern victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in early July It also caused a great deal of fear among Indiana and Ohio residents and cost several of these people some personal property that the raiders had seized.

52 While the Confederates succeeded in instilling fear in the civilian population, the raid inspired many of these people to fight even harder to defeat the Confederacy. Despite the Raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 Union militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio; and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning In addition, the Confederate military lost an entire division of veteran cavalrymen. Morgan also failed to destroy any railroad tracks, bridges, or supply depots. The raid caused no significant harm to the transportation and communication infrastructure of the North. The raid had as many negative effects as positive ones for the Confederacy. While the Confederates succeeded in instilling fear in the civilian population, the raid inspired many of these people to fight even harder to defeat the Confederacy. Despite the Raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 Union militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio; and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning In addition, the Confederate military lost an entire division of veteran cavalrymen. Morgan also failed to destroy any railroad tracks, bridges, or supply depots. The raid caused no significant harm to the transportation and communication infrastructure of the North. The raid had as many negative effects as positive ones for the Confederacy.United States NavygunboatsOhioUnited States NavygunboatsOhio

53 Conclusion The Northwest conspiracy failed because Copperheads refused to take arms against the federal government and because Copperhead violence would endanger Democratic prospects in the campaign of Though many sympathized with the confederacy it was too big a risk. The Northwest conspiracy failed because Copperheads refused to take arms against the federal government and because Copperhead violence would endanger Democratic prospects in the campaign of Though many sympathized with the confederacy it was too big a risk.


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