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Lesson 8.1a: The Articles of Confederation Today we will analyze the Articles of Confederation.

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1 Lesson 8.1a: The Articles of Confederation Today we will analyze the Articles of Confederation.

2 Vocabulary republican – form of government in which people elect the people who govern them bill – a written paper containing a statement of details or facts constitution – a written outline of government establish – create or set up ordinance – a law

3 What We Already Know The Enlightenment spread the ideas that people had rights that came from God… and that governments should exist to protect those rights. John Locke

4 What We Already Know For eight years, the United States fought a bitter war against a government that threatened those rights.

5 What We Already Know During the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress had served as the government for the United States.

6 Once the American colonies declared independence, each of the states had to create its own government. Some state governments were separated into three branches (executive, legislative, judicial), to prevent them from becoming too powerful. Once the American colonies declared independence, each of the states had to create its own government. Some state governments were separated into three branches (executive, legislative, judicial), to prevent them from becoming too powerful.

7 New State Governments Once the American colonies declared independence, each of the states created a constitution to establish its own government. The framers of these early state constitutions did not want to destroy the political systems that they had had as colonies. They simply wanted to make those systems more democratic. Once the American colonies declared independence, each of the states created a constitution to establish its own government. The framers of these early state constitutions did not want to destroy the political systems that they had had as colonies. They simply wanted to make those systems more democratic.

8 Most states tried to make their governments more democratic. separate branches weaker executive branches abolition of slavery bill of rights separate branches weaker executive branches abolition of slavery bill of rights

9 New State Governments Some states experimented with creating separate branches of government, giving different powers to different branches. By creating separate branches, Americans hoped to prevent the government from becoming too powerful. Some states experimented with creating separate branches of government, giving different powers to different branches. By creating separate branches, Americans hoped to prevent the government from becoming too powerful.

10 New State Governments Nearly all states tried to weaken the executive branch. Terms of office were usually short, and elections were held frequently.

11 New State Governments Some states began passing laws gradually abolishing slavery. In 1783 a Massachusetts court ended slavery when it ruled that “all men are born free and equal.” By 1786 five states had abolished slavery. Some states began passing laws gradually abolishing slavery. In 1783 a Massachusetts court ended slavery when it ruled that “all men are born free and equal.” By 1786 five states had abolished slavery.

12 New State Governments Some states included a bill of rights in their constitutions as a way to keep the government under control. The idea of a bill of rights came from the English Bill of Rights of 1689. This was a list of rights that the government guaranteed to English citizens. Some states included a bill of rights in their constitutions as a way to keep the government under control. The idea of a bill of rights came from the English Bill of Rights of 1689. This was a list of rights that the government guaranteed to English citizens.

13 New State Governments Not all the states had a bill of rights, and not all of them abolished slavery. All of them did have a republican form of government. These early state constitutions would later serve as a pattern for the U.S. Constitution. Not all the states had a bill of rights, and not all of them abolished slavery. All of them did have a republican form of government. These early state constitutions would later serve as a pattern for the U.S. Constitution.

14 1. What effect did state governments have on national politics? A.They provided a solid foundation for the U.S. Constitution. B.They abolished slavery everywhere. C.They created constitutions that contained bills of rights. D.The demanded that Congress repeal the Northwest Ordinance.

15 1. What effect did state governments have on national politics? A.They provided a solid foundation for the U.S. Constitution. B.They abolished slavery everywhere. C.They created constitutions that contained bills of rights. D.The demanded that Congress repeal the Northwest Ordinance.

16 What form of government did all the new states create? A.republican B.democratic C.parliamentary D.magisterial E.bureaucratic A.republican B.democratic C.parliamentary D.magisterial E.bureaucratic

17 2. Why did most of the new state constitutions create governments with separate branches? A.It was the way government had been organized back in England. B.Separate branches would make the governments strong and effective. C.Each branch could operate independently of the other two. D.They wanted to prevent those govern- ments from becoming too powerful. A.It was the way government had been organized back in England. B.Separate branches would make the governments strong and effective. C.Each branch could operate independently of the other two. D.They wanted to prevent those govern- ments from becoming too powerful.

18 2. Why did most of the new state constitutions create governments with separate branches? A.It was the way government had been organized back in England. B.Separate branches would make the governments strong and effective. C.Each branch could operate independently of the other two. D.They wanted to prevent those govern- ments from becoming too powerful. A.It was the way government had been organized back in England. B.Separate branches would make the governments strong and effective. C.Each branch could operate independently of the other two. D.They wanted to prevent those govern- ments from becoming too powerful.

19 Track with me: During the Revolutionary War, each state was independent, with a republican form of government. The war showed the need for the states to work together. This idea of “united we stand, divided we fall” carried on after independence was won.

20 The Articles of Confederation In 1776, the Continental Congress began to develop a plan for a national government. Congress agreed that the government should be a republic, and it organized itself based on the model that the British Parliament provided. In 1776, the Continental Congress began to develop a plan for a national government. Congress agreed that the government should be a republic, and it organized itself based on the model that the British Parliament provided.

21 The Articles of Confederation It was agreed that every state was given one vote, regardless of size. Although the delegates disagreed about several issues, Congress eventually arrived at a final plan, called the Articles of Confederation. It was agreed that every state was given one vote, regardless of size. Although the delegates disagreed about several issues, Congress eventually arrived at a final plan, called the Articles of Confederation.

22 Because many Americans feared a strong government, the Articles of Confederation gave the national government few powers. power to wage warpower to wage war power to make peacepower to make peace power to sign treatiespower to sign treaties power to issue moneypower to issue money power to control Western landspower to control Western lands power to wage warpower to wage war power to make peacepower to make peace power to sign treatiespower to sign treaties power to issue moneypower to issue money power to control Western landspower to control Western lands

23 The Articles of Confederation The Articles created a government with only a legislative branch, the Congress. Each state, large or small, had only one vote in Congress. What was worse, with no executive branch, the national government could not enforce its own laws. The Articles created a government with only a legislative branch, the Congress. Each state, large or small, had only one vote in Congress. What was worse, with no executive branch, the national government could not enforce its own laws.

24 The most important powers were left to the states. to set taxes to enforce national laws

25 Powers of the government National government issue money wage war make peace sign treaties control Western lands enforce laws collect taxes one vote in Congress wage war one vote in Congress enforce laws collect taxes make peace sign treaties State governments

26 3. Who had the most powers under the Articles of Confederation? A.the national government B.the state governments C.Federalists D.republicans

27 3. Who had the most powers under the Articles of Confederation? A.the national government B.the state governments C.Federalists D.republicans

28 4. What was the United States Congress modeled after? A.the German Reichstag B.the British Parliament C.the French Estates General D.the Russian Duma E.the Spanish Diet A.the German Reichstag B.the British Parliament C.the French Estates General D.the Russian Duma E.the Spanish Diet Choose all that are true!

29 4. What was the United States Congress modeled after? A.the German Reichstag B.the British Parliament C.the French Estates General D.the Russian Duma E.the Spanish Diet A.the German Reichstag B.the British Parliament C.the French Estates General D.the Russian Duma E.the Spanish Diet Choose all that are true!

30 The Problem of Western Land One issue that had stood in the way of the ratification of the Articles of Confederation was the issue of Western land.

31 The Problem of Western Lands Some of the smaller states had no western lands, which could be sold to pay debts left from the Revolution.

32 The Problem of Western Lands States without such lands to sell were at a disadvantage. They wanted the national government to control the western states.

33 The Problem of Western Lands Over the next three years, the other states gave up title to the western land. The small states finally voted to ratify the Articles.

34 The Land Ordinance of 1785 The Ordinance established townships in what would become known as the Northwest Territory.

35 The Land Ordinance of 1785 It staked out six- mile square townships. It also set aside one square-mile section of land for schools. This was the first time the national government promoted public education.

36 The Northwest Ordinance It described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed. As each territory grew in population, it would gain rights to self-government. When there were 60,000 people, they could apply to become a new state. This was important because it set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. It described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed. As each territory grew in population, it would gain rights to self-government. When there were 60,000 people, they could apply to become a new state. This was important because it set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States.

37 Slavery was banned in the Northwest Territory.

38 Religious freedom was guaranteed.

39 5. What issues affected the Western territories between 1775 and 1787? A.Who would control the territories B.How to divide western lands C.Making peace with the Indians D.How to settle the western lands E.How to buy more land from foreign countries Choose all that are true!

40 5. What issues affected the Western territories between 1775 and 1787? A.Who would control the territories B.How to divide western lands C.Making peace with the Indians D.How to settle the western lands E.How to buy more land from foreign countries Choose all that are true!

41 6. What did the Land Ordinance of 1785 do? The Ordinance established townships in what would become known as the Northwest Territory. Each township was a six-mile square (36 sq. miles). One square-mile section was set aside to earn money for schools. The Ordinance established townships in what would become known as the Northwest Territory. Each township was a six-mile square (36 sq. miles). One square-mile section was set aside to earn money for schools.

42 What did the do? 7. What did the Northwest Ordinance do? A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. Choose all that are true!

43 What did the do? 7. What did the Northwest Ordinance do? A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. Choose all that are true!

44 What did the do? 7. What did the Northwest Ordinance do? A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. Choose all that are true!

45 What did the do? 7. What did the Northwest Ordinance do? A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. Choose all that are true!

46 What did the do? 7. What did the Northwest Ordinance do? A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. A.It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. B.It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. C.It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. D.It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. E.It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. Choose all that are true!

47 Lesson 8.1b: Shays’ Rebellion Today we will explain the connection between the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Shays’ Rebellion.

48 Vocabulary levy – to establish and collect a tax or a fee strength – something you are good at weakness – something you don’t do well debt – something owed, usually money

49 What We Already Know When Britain threatened the rights of the colonists, farmers and merchants at Lexington and Concord rose up in arms against what they saw as injustice.

50 What We Already Know With independence came the opportunity and responsibility to create an effective government.

51 What We Already Know The first American government was intentionally made weak by a people that had fought a desperate war for freedom against a powerful and abusive government The first American government was intentionally made weak by a people that had fought a desperate war for freedom against a powerful and abusive government.

52 Strengths of the Articles of Confederation

53 One strength of the Articles of Confederation was that they left important powers to the states.

54 The Confederation Congress was too weak to solve the nation’s problems.

55 Weaknesses of the Articles Aside from its handling of land issues, the Confederation Congress had few successes. By the end of the Revolutionary War, the United States faced serious problems, and the Confederation Congress did not have enough power to solve them.

56 Weaknesses of the Articles Debt was a critical problem for the government. Congress had borrowed large sums to pay for the Revolutionary War. Much of that money was owed to soldiers of its own army.

57 Weaknesses of the Articles Upset at not being paid, several hundred soldiers surrounded the Pennsylvania State House where Congress was meeting in June 1783. The soldiers threatened the legislators, thrusting their bayonets through the windows. The delegates were forced to flee the city. The event was a clear sign of Congress’s weakness.

58 Weaknesses of the Articles Even if Congress wanted to pay the soldiers, it did not have the power to levy taxes under the Articles of Confederation. The national government depended on the states to send money to Congress. But the states sent very little money.

59 Weaknesses of the Articles Congress was not alone in facing economic crises. People throughout the nation faced hard times. In Massachusetts, the economy was so bad that people rose up in arms against the government.

60 8. What were the strengths of the Articles of Confederation? A.They empowered Congress to make treaties. B.They empowered Congress to enforce laws. C.They empowered Congress to levy and collect taxes and regulate trade. D.They left important powers to the states. E.They created a powerful chief executive to run the government. Choose all that are true!

61 8. What were the strengths of the Articles of Confederation? A.They empowered Congress to make treaties. B.They empowered Congress to enforce laws. C.They empowered Congress to levy and collect taxes and regulate trade. D.They left important powers to the states. E.They created a powerful chief executive to run the government. Choose all that are true!

62 8. What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? A.Congress had no power to enforce laws, collect taxes, or regulate trade. B.They withheld important powers from the states. C.They lacked a chief executive to run the government. D.They contained a limited bill of rights. E.They were difficult for the states to amend.

63 8. What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? A.Congress had no power to enforce laws, collect taxes, or regulate trade. B.They withheld important powers from the states. C.They lacked a chief executive to run the government. D.They contained a limited bill of rights. E.They were difficult for the states to amend.

64 The government’s weakness led to violence In Massachusetts, farmers who could not pay their tax debts lost their land and were jailed. In 1787, when the state legislature refused to provide relief from their debts, about 1500 farmers rebelled. In Massachusetts, farmers who could not pay their tax debts lost their land and were jailed. In 1787, when the state legislature refused to provide relief from their debts, about 1500 farmers rebelled.

65 This rebellion was led by a Revolutionary War veteran named Daniel Shays. This rebellion was led by a Revolutionary War veteran named Daniel Shays. The government’s weakness led to violence

66 Shays’ rebels often invaded court rooms to prevent judges from ruling against debtors.

67 The government’s weakness led to violence In January 1787, Shays and his men marched on a federal arsenal; a place to store weapons. In January 1787, Shays and his men marched on a federal arsenal; a place to store weapons.

68 The government’s weakness led to violence The arsenal was defended by 900 militia soldiers from Massachusetts.

69 The government’s weakness led to violence The militia defeated them, killing four protesters. Although the protesters were defeated, they won the sympathy of many AmericansAlthough the protesters were defeated, they won the sympathy of many Americans. The militia defeated them, killing four protesters. Although the protesters were defeated, they won the sympathy of many AmericansAlthough the protesters were defeated, they won the sympathy of many Americans.

70 The government’s weakness led to violence America’s leaders realized that an armed uprising of common farmers spelled danger for the nation. Some leaders hoped that the nation’s ills could be solved by strengthening the national government. America’s leaders realized that an armed uprising of common farmers spelled danger for the nation. Some leaders hoped that the nation’s ills could be solved by strengthening the national government.

71 Why was the Confederation Congress not able to pay the soldiers who fought during the Revolutionary War? A.It still owed too much money to France and Spain. B.The Constitution prohibited cash payments to the military. C.The government was bankrupt after buying Louisiana from France. D.It did not have the power to levy taxes. A.It still owed too much money to France and Spain. B.The Constitution prohibited cash payments to the military. C.The government was bankrupt after buying Louisiana from France. D.It did not have the power to levy taxes.

72 Why was the Confederation Congress not able to pay the soldiers who fought during the Revolutionary War? A.It still owed too much money to France and Spain. B.The Constitution prohibited cash payments to the military. C.The government was bankrupt after buying Louisiana from France. D.It did not have the power to levy taxes. A.It still owed too much money to France and Spain. B.The Constitution prohibited cash payments to the military. C.The government was bankrupt after buying Louisiana from France. D.It did not have the power to levy taxes.

73 9. What caused Shays’ Rebellion?

74 A.A slave rebellion in North Carolina B.Seizure of land from Massachusetts farmers who couldn’t pay their debts C.Government failure to provide Kentucky settlers with protection from Indian attacks D.Rebellious Continental soldiers who hadn't been paid for their service

75 A.A slave rebellion in North Carolina B.Seizure of land from Massachusetts farmers who couldn’t pay their debts C.Government failure to provide Kentucky settlers with protection from Indian attacks D.Rebellious Continental soldiers who hadn't been paid for their service


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