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A Peninsula of Peninsulas

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1 A Peninsula of Peninsulas
European Geography

2 Four Major Landforms Northwest Highlands Northern European Plain
Central Uplands Alpine Mountain System

3 Northwest Highlands Make up Northwestern part of France; some of the Iberian peninsula; hills of England and Ireland; Scottish highlands; and mountains of Scandinavia Glaciers scoured through Scandinavia and British Isles carving fjords on Norway’s coast

4 Northwest Highlands Continued
Fjords are narrow inlets of the sea set between high rocky cliffs The glaciers left behind thin soils and thousands of lakes

5 Northern European Plain
Ranges from the Atlantic Coast to the Ural Mountains Made up of numerous rivers where many river towns and port cities have developed Contains large cities like Paris and Berlin Due to its physical geography, human contact has been relatively easy – it has many rivers, short distances, and smooth terrain

6 Northern European Plain Continued
Such a geography has promoted trade between culture groups, and traveling and migrating have not been difficult It is Europe’s most important farming and industrial area

7 Central Uplands Massif Central of France and the Jura Mountains on the French-Swiss border Moves northeastward across southern Germany to the Bohemian highlands

8 Central Uplands Continued
Composed of hills, small plateaus, forested slopes, and fertile valleys Has productive coal fields which have nearby industrial towns and cities

9 Alpine Mountain System
Ranges from France’s Mediterranean Coast to the Balkan Peninsula Alps – Europe’s major mountain range The high mountains of this system have not deterred human interaction; not a serious barrier

10 Alpine Mountain System Continued
The Alpine mountain system also includes the Carpathian mountains in Eastern Europe, the Apennines in Italy, and the Pyrenees of France and Spain This system was formed by tectonic plates pushing against each other

11 Water Europe is a peninsula so it is surrounded by water on 3 sides
The Mediterranean is in the South; the Arctic Ocean, North Sea, and Baltic Sea are around Northern Europe; and the North Atlantic Ocean is off of Western Europe

12 Water The North Sea has been an important hub for fishing and trading
The North Atlantic Ocean has transported explorers, fishers, and merchants for centuries

13 Europe’s Coastline Europe’s coastline creates many natural harbors which are usually located at the mouths of navigable rivers Navigable rivers are deep enough and wide enough for shipping They have made trading by sea ideal

14 Europe’s Coastline Continued
Such a coastline has influenced Europe’s history Harbors have offered protection for ships Water offered opportunities to explore, fish, trade, and it promoted political and military power The Phoenicians, Greeks, and Vikings sailed and explored Europe’s coastline Helped Rome establish a vast empire

15 Europe’s Coastline Continued
The sea also provided global colonial and economic power Spanish and Portuguese sailed around the world in the 1500s setting up trading posts and colonies 1700s and 1800s Great Britain was the world’s dominant colonial and sea power How did the ability to travel the sea help establish empires?

16 Rivers The Rhine and Danube are Europe’s most important rivers
Numerous cities and industrial areas are located long the banks and both have barges constantly transporting goods The Rhine starts in the Swiss Alps; it flows northwestward through Germany and the Netherlands to the North Sea The Danube starts in the uplands of southern Germany and flows eastward through 9 countries in central and eastern Europe and ends in the Black Sea

17 Climates and Biomes 3 major climate types: Marine west coast
Humid continental Mediterranean

18 Marine West Coast Consists of more of northern and western Europe which includes southern Iceland, the British Isles, and it stretches from northern Spain to Poland and Slovakia It has frequent rainfall because of storms coming off of the Atlantic Mild temperatures Cloudy, drizzly, or foggy days are common

19 Humid Continental Includes the interior of Norway and Sweden to the Black Sea Four distinct season, from severe winters to summer droughts in Hungary and Romania

20 Mediterranean Makes up most of southern Europe
Usually has mild, rainy winters because of North Atlantic Drift and sunny summers North Atlantic Drift is a warm ocean current from the gulf stream in North America that warms the air above it which is carried by winds to Europe, brining mild temperatures and rain

21 Smaller Climate Regions
Subarctic climate is across northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland The extreme northern part of these countries have a tundra climate Most of Spain has a semiarid climate

22 Four Major Biomes Temperate forest Mediterranean scrub forest
Boreal forest Tundra

23 Temperate Forest Most of Europe lies within this biome
Trees are common Covered in fields and towns Once covered in dense forests but now there are only remnants Badgers, deer, and a variety of birds still live here

24 Mediterranean Scrub Forest
Composes the drier areas of southern Europe Small trees, shrubs, and drought resistant plants Still has roaming wild boars and wild sheep

25 Boreal Forest Large parts of northern and central Europe
Finland, Norway, and Sweden have Europe’s remaining woodlands Provides much of Europe’s timber for building and papermaking

26 Tundra In the far parts of northern Europe like Iceland and northern Scandinavia Land is frozen most of the time Treeless but does sustain migratory birds during the summer and reindeer and foxes

27 Natural Resources Europe’s resources consist of forests, soils, fisheries, energy, and minerals Much of the original forests have been cleared through the centuries and pollution has destroyed a lot that is left Much of Europe has to import timber

28 Natural Resources Continued
Soil has been a critical asset to Europe – more than half of Europe is used for farming Northern European Plain has the best soil, some of which is developed from loess – fine-grained, windblown soil; very fertile Southern Europe benefits from alluvial soil that can produce a wide range of crops – areas like Italy’s Po Valley and Spain’s Guadalquivir are major farming centers

29 Natural Resources Continued
Some major crops include grapes, olives, potatoes, and wheat Europe has the highest crop yields in the world because of modern technology Chemical fertilizers Crop rotations Modern machinary

30 Natural Resources Continued
Polders Land reclaimed by the sea The Dutch built earthen walls called dikes along the shoreline Windmills pumped out the seawater Reeds are planted to draw out more water Reeds are burned and plowed so its ready for farming Allowed Dutch to increase amount of available farm land

31 Natural Resources Continued
Fishing as historically been a part of Europe’s economy Fishing villages dot Europe’s long coastline and the water is covered in fishing boats The North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and the North Sea have the best fishing Some of Europe’s major fishing countries include Iceland, Norway, Spain, and Denmark The industry is being threatened by overfishing and pollution

32 Natural Resources Continued
Energy and Minerals Europe’s advanced technology requires resources of oil, iron, and other metals that it does not have so it must import Does have a natural abundance of coal but oil has since replaced coal as the main energy source Beneath the North Sea there are oil and natural gas deposits which benefit Norway and Britain Hydroelectricity is an energy source produced in the mountains of Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland

33 Natural Resources Continued
Ocean Tidal power and solar power are produced in France Iceland uses geothermal energy Nuclear power is also an energy source for some Europeans but it is considered too dangerous Some other mineral resources include iron ore, uranium, lead, and zinc which can be found in Sweden, France, and Spain Southern Europe mines marble for building and art

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