Presentation on theme: "Deforestation We Wish to Learn: What is “deforestation”?"— Presentation transcript:
1Deforestation We Wish to Learn: What is “deforestation”? How have old growth forests been affected by humans?What are the consequences of loss of forest habitats and ecosystems?What management strategies are in place to preserve and restore forests?
2Area of Forest Ecosystems World total: ~ 34 million km2
3DefinitionsDeforestation: The conversion of forest to another land use or the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below a 10 percent threshold. Deforestation implies the long-term or permanent loss of forest cover and its transformation into another land use.Primary forest: is a forest that has never been logged and has developed following natural disturbances and under natural processes, regardless of its age.Secondary forests: are forests regenerating largely through natural processes after significant human or natural disturbance, and which differ from primary forests in forest composition and/or canopy structure.Disturbed forests: Any forest type that has in its interior significant areas of disturbance by people, including clearing, felling for wood extraction, anthropogenic fires, road construction, etc.Frontier forests: large, ecologically intact, and relatively undisturbed forests that support the natural range of species and forest functions (WRI definition).Forest plantation is one established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. It consists of introduced species or, in some cases, indigenous species.
4Frontier Forests of the World The major findings of this report show:* Almost half of Earth’s original forest cover is gone, much of it destroyed within the past three decades.* Today, just one-fifth of the world’s original forest cover remains in large tracts of relatively undisturbed forest -- or frontier forest.* Three countries -- Russia, Canada, and Brazil -- house almost 70 percent of the world’s remaining frontier forest.* 40 percent of forest on Earth today qualifies as frontier forest.* 39 percent of Earth’s remaining frontier forest is threatened by logging, agricultural clearing, and other human activity.* Half of today’s frontier forest lies in boreal regions within Canada, Russia, and Alaska -- inhospitable northern zones between temperate forest and tundra.* Outside of boreal regions, about 75 percent of the world’s frontier forest is threatened.* Only 3 percent of the world’s frontier forest falls entirely within the temperate zone (regions characterized by moderate climate, including much of the U.S. and Europe). Today temperate forests are the most endangered frontier forests of all.Frontier forests8,000 years agoFrontier forestsTodayCurrent non-frontierforests
6Virgin Forests 1600 Virgin Forests 1993 Old-growth forests in the United States and Canada: Since 1600, 90% of the virgin forests that once covered much of the lower 48 states have been cleared away. Most of the remaining old-growth forests in the lower 48 states and Alaska are on public lands. In the Pacific Northwest about 80% of this forestland is slated for logging.Source: Wilderness Society, U.S. Forest Service, and Atlas Historique du Canada
7Forest Area Change in Illinois Million Acres1820: 13.81924: 3.021948: 4.001962: 3.871985: 4.261998: 4.33Note regrowth since 1920s, of second-growth forest (Iverson 1991)
8Deforestation RatesNote similarity of present deforestation rates in the tropics and past deforestation rates in Illinois. (Iverson et al. 1991)
9Worldwide Distribution of Tropical Forests Tropical evergreen forest once covered ~ 16 million km2; today they cover about half their original extent.
11Brazil contains about 3.5 million km2 of tropical forest, ~30% of the world's total. Almost all of Brazil's standing tropical forests are in the Amazon Basin,~50% of Amazonia comprises upland areas: tropical rain forest.Perhaps another 0.5 million km2 consist of transitional forests.In addition, there are large areas of savanna in the southern reaches of Amazonia.Amazonia
12Images of Amazonia Sloth in tree Macaw with Brazil nut See the GC1 lecture (www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/)
13Satellite image analysis reveals increasing rates of deforestation in Amazonia, and transformation of forest land into agriculture and pasture
14Brazil in the News Rondonia from Space, 1992 WASHINGTON POST, Feb 23, 1998Statistics released this year show that in 1995 destruction of the Amazonian rain forest reachedan all-time high. Just five years before, in 1990, some 11,000 square kilometers of forest werecleared in the Amazon. By 1995 that figure had almost tripled, to more than 29,000 squarekilometers -- equivalent to 6 1/2 million football fields.REUTERS, Feb 3, 1998:Brasilia, Brazil — Brazil has created seven new national forests in the Amazon to foster sustainable logging and slow the destruction of rain forests. A decree signed by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso turns a total of 6.67 million acres of public land into areas which the Brazilian government may lease to loggers, the government's Environmental Institute (IBAMA) said in a statement. “With the decree … the government hopes to discourage the purchase of private land in the Amazon and at the same time encourage state governments to create their own networks of public forests”
15Forest FunctionsSource of wood products, including fuelwood (83% of all wood), building and non-wood productsInfluence climate conditions, affecting rainfall patterns and temperatureStore nutrients and influence soil fertilityStore carbon and act as potential CO2 “sink”Support natural ecological systems and helps to protect life diversityProvide recreational benefits
16Wood and Non-Wood Products roundwood - wood in its natural state. May be used for building or processed into lumber, pulp, panels, paper & plywoodfood: nuts and fruitsbark, dyes, fibers, gums, incense, latexes, oils, resins, shellac, tanning compounds & waxesBrazil nut harvesters (Castañeros) harvest the mature fruits after they fall to the forest floor
17Forest Ecosystem Services protect watersheds and ensure perennial supplies of fresh waterreduce sedimentation by mitigating erosion due to winds and surface run offprevent floodsimprove air qualityenrich soil through plant litter and nitrogen fixationprotect biodiversityPhoto of muddy flood waters
19Trees provide shade and their root systems hold soil
20Endangered SpeciesIn June 1990, the Northern Spotted Owl was listed as an threatened speciesLives in old-growth coniferous forests at the top of the food chain (needs to range widely)Logging in the Pacific Northwest takes place on public as well as private landsU.S. Forest Service and other federal agencies are caught between their traditional role, which includes permitting forest harvest, and growing desire to protect species and wildlandsThe Numbat - a marsupial lives off insects that inhabit decaying trees in old-growth forests
21Causes of Deforestation Growing economies and consumptionPopulation growth and demand for new landBad economic policiesShort-sighted political decisionsCorruption and illegal tradePoverty and landlessnessRoot causes of deforestation include:* Growing economies with growing demand for paper and wood products;* Population growth, poverty, and landlessness that drive the poor to clear pristine forest;* Mistaken economic policies that ignore or undervalue frontier forest preservation;* Short-sighted political decision-making that appeases special interest groups or influential families or that defuses acute political emergencies by offering land, access, roads, etc.* Corruption among government officials or illegal trade in drugs produced from plants grown in isolated growing areas.* Poverty and landlessness which push people into frontiers in search of agricultural land and other economic opportunities.
22Tropical hardwoods are highly valuable - ebony, teak, rosewood, etc Tropical hardwoods are highly valuable - ebony, teak, rosewood, etc. Their sale earns dollars for exporting countries, and enriches timber barons.
23Economics of Timber Harvest Due to the slow renewal of a forest, and the high value of timber, it may be more profitable to sell the timber and invest the money, than to harvest the forest sustainablyDue to political corruption, economic inequity and the powerless position of the poor, wealthy elites are able to pursue their short-term gainLong-range policies and environmental concerns often lack support among the wealthy and the poorWhen regulatory policies exist, they may rarely be enforced
24Landlessness and Population Growth Many tropical countries with extensive forest are experiencing substantial population growth and urban migration.Historical discrepancies between wealthy landowners and poor peasants are reflected in political power structure, and so no land is available to give poor people work in the countrysideOpening of forests to the landless poor is a social safety valve, reducing urban migration and conflicts between rich and poor.
25Roads and Their Consequences Network of roads built into forests is extensive. One square km can have 20 km of roadsIn the U.S. forest system, there are 600,000 km of roads, built to facilitate timber harvestRoad networks have serious consequencesAs forests are opened up, they become drier and more susceptible to fires. Fires in tropical forests were very rare. In 1997 severe fires raged in Brazil and Indonesia (remember the smoke problems in Indonesia)Bushmeat harvest enabled by road networks is depleting tropical forests of their wildlife
26Forest fragmentation by roads in Central Africa Forest fragmentation by roads in Central Africa. This study shows that 42% of forest area in the six countries is within 10 km of a road and more than 90% is within 50 km of a road.WRI Earthtrends
27Forest Management and Recovery Forest management may have many goals - to maximize harvest, to provide recreational opportunities, or to maximize multiple uses of the forestForest restoration may seek to restore the system to a near-natural or completely natural state, or to restore many aspects of the structure and function of an undisturbed forest
28Some U.S. Forest Management Issues 2000 was the biggest wildfire year since the 1950s and advent of Smokey the bear.Today we have 50 years of wildfire suppression, coupled with the spread of humans into wildland interfaces.Trends in wildlife area burned in wildfire in U.S.Iverson, L.R Biological trends in the United States: an annotated on-line review.
29Restore Oak Communities Fire and Thinning toRestore Oak CommunitiesFire suppression plays a role in the impending “maple takeover” and “oak bottleneck” in the East. Oaks and hickory dominate the overstory, but maples will eventually take over, unless management actions can help regenerate oaks.
30Prescribed FiresPrescribed burns help to kill maple saplings and may benefit oak regeneration. However, a more open canopy also is needed.
31ThinningThinning plus fire may help to recover oak forests
32Timescales for Recovery 100+ yrs toresemble uncut forestuncut forestcut or burnfarmed 2-3 yrs)2 yrspioneersemerge15 yrsprimariesemergeTime scales are such that ittakes 100’s of yearsfor a forest to regenerateIf small plots of forests are cut, burned, farmed for a few years and then allowed to lie fallow, forest structure and biodiversity may persistIf biomass is bulldozed away the forest may never regenerate
33Restoration Ecology - natural recovery vs a “helping hand” Scientists and others are experimenting with tropical forest restoration in many locations.Based on scientific understanding of forest dynamics, including light gaps, seed dispersal, and recruitment dynamicsEven in very degraded areas, fragments of intact systems can be found in margins of altered areasTimescale of recovery is uncertain - no observational record of a full recovery to “old growth” conditionsTree nursery and planting seedlings,
34Forest Stewardship in Developing Countries Manage for long-term benefitsCreate economic opportunities for all partiesDevelop a balanced land-use plan based on sound scienceHave clear role for government and enforced regulationsInvolve all local stakeholdersConserve special areas
35Tropical Forest “Hot Spots” These 17 areas, believed to be unusually rich storehouses of biodiversity, are being deforested rapidly.Source: Norman Myers and Conservation International
36SummaryForest ecosystems provide valuable human products and ecosystem servicesDeforestation has already removed about half of the world’s forests, and in your lifetime threatens to eliminate most of the remaining tropical forests. Many temperate forests are re-growing, howeverForests are managed for multiple uses, to restore as much of possible of natural ecosystem function, and in some cases to attempt to restore “old-growth” or pre-disturbance conditions