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C H A P T E R Innisfree McKinnon University of Oregon © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline 8 The Great Lakes and Corn Belt.

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Presentation on theme: "C H A P T E R Innisfree McKinnon University of Oregon © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline 8 The Great Lakes and Corn Belt."— Presentation transcript:

1 C H A P T E R Innisfree McKinnon University of Oregon © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline 8 The Great Lakes and Corn Belt

2 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives The Heartland States & Provinces Environmental Setting –Glaciation Historical Settlement –Source areas for immigrants –Ethnic enclaves in Toronto & Chicago –The Old Northwest and the Northwest Ordinance –The Great Migration

3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Political Economy –Family, corporate, cash-grain, & mixed farms –Industrialization & advantages of the region –Youngstown & postindustrialization Culture, People, Places –The Golden Horseshoe of southern Ontario –Chicago and globalization

4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Ohio, shaped similar to a heart called "the heart of it all" Often seen as having truly "American" values with fewer "foreign" influences Near the geographic center of North America The Heartland Transportation hub Area seen as repository of stable, conservative, endearing ideas about the nature of life and society

6 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Most areas not previously glaciated are hillier and less fertile Heart of America's Lowland Most of region < 2000 ft. above sea level Mostly flat & gentle hills. Mostly shaped by periodic glaciation

7 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Great Lakes & Waterways Extensive natural and man-made waterways Allowed water travel from Great Lakes to Mississippi River Chicago river reversed in early 20 th century for new water route to Mississippi River.

8 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate Humid continental climate Cooler summers and milder winters on immediate east and south sides of the Great Lakes Occasional strong blizzards and snowstorms Tornadoes and strong thunderstorms in spring and summer Year round precipitation

9 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Invasive Species Often outbreed and outcompete native species Few local predators to cull numbers May attempt to spread to neighboring regions

10 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Northwest Ordinance 1785 Created township and range method of survey Land surveyed into square townships of 36 sq. miles Historical Settlement Eastern Woodland Culture British control from 1763 to 1783 1783 Treaty of Paris formed Old Northwest

11 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Colonial Great Lakes & Corn Belt At Philadelphia Constitutional Convention Original 13 colonies gave up claims in Old Northwest New territories could apply for admission to United States Post ratification of Constitution, states could apply once population > 60,000 Euro-Americans

12 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Part of region west of Mississippi obtained as result of Louisiana Purchase in 1803 Most Native Americans pushed westward out of south-eastern U.S. across Mississippi between 1812 and 1832

13 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Population & Water Rapid population growth enhanced by easy access by water Great Lakes, Ohio River, Mississippi River Enhanced by construction of locks and dams in rivers and canals Enhanced by construction of Erie Canal in 1825

14 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Scandinavia Canada Antebellum Immigrants Appalachian natives New England, New York & Pennsylvania natives England & Wales Scotland & Ireland Germany The Netherlands

15 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. –Poles –Greeks & Italians –Hungarians & Czechs –Dutch, Swedes, Norwegians, Finns, Danes Great Migration –500,000 African Americans left rural South –Settled in Chicago, New York, Detroit, Cleveland, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Kansas City –Impact on culture & heritage –Many settled in Ontario & Nova Scotia Postbellum Immigrants Europeans

16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Pull Factors Jobs at much higher wages Call to freedom Opportunity for equality Push Factors & Pull Factors Push Factors Institutionalized racism Segregation Lynchings Beatings Limited education and economic opportunities

17 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Political Economy By end of 19 th century, economy highly integrated mix of agriculture, industry, and services For two centuries the Great Lakes & Corn Belt was one of most productive farming areas in world Factors: fertile soil, adequate water, excellent transportation, favorable government policy, good work ethic, and experience

18 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Farming Family Farm – run by individual family instead of corporation. Corporate Farm Cash-grain Farm – raise cash crops that are sold directly to food-processing companies Mixed Farm – most crops are fed to livestock

19 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Agricultural Activities Corn (Iowa and Illinois are nation's lead corn producing states) Soybeans (U.S. produces over ¾ of world's soybean crop) Hogs (Iowa has about 5 hogs for every Iowan) Cattle ranching Dairy farming

20 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Corn and Ethanol Production

21 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Industry Overview Historically agricultural sector complimented by equally important industrial sector Area was once most productive industrial region of N. America After exodus of steel mills & auto plants, area known as the "Rust Belt"

22 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rise of Industrial Sector Region central for many industrial resources (e.g., coal, iron) Region transportation center, first water- based transportation, then rail Abundant labor from immigrants, and Americans moving from Appalachia & the Deep South Communities identified by primary industrial products produced

23 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cost of Globalization Industrial production declining lower production costs outside the U.S. Diversified companies tend to survive Highly specialized industrial bases are harder hit

24 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Tertiary and Quaternary Activities in Great Lakes and Corn Belt Tourism and the military not a large part of the economy Other tertiary and quaternary activities have prospered in places Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota Government centers University communities

25 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Canada This region includes part of Southern Ontario The Golden Horseshoe = Oshawa, Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catherine's-Niagara Toronto blossomed after World War II More than half Toronto's current population born outside Canada. London & Windsor are major industrial centers

26 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. United States The Rust Belt Youngstown, OH = recent flourishing economic center Pittsburgh = strong postindustrial economy Chicago = transportation center

27 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Transportation hub Now financial and commercial center Chicago 1850 population ~29,000 1900 population ~1,000,000 Once primary industrial center Changing and diverse cultural landscape Ethnic enclaves

28 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Industrial Cities in Economic Decline Detroit, MI – Automobile Production Detroit Mayor proposed that 40 square miles of city be abandoned due to population loss and abandoned houses. Milwaukee, MN Cleveland, OH Declining population Little economic development Problems transitioning from Industrial to Post- Industrial

29 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Industrial Cities in Economic Decline (cont.)

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Detroit Problems in racial integration and urban diversity Detroit is 2/3 African-American Argument that dependence on manufacturing has impeded integration. Eminem and Eight Mile Road Prediction that integration will increase if quaternary sector expands

31 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Future of the Great Lakes/Corn Belt Region Strong support as transportation center Challenges in economic revival and transition Likely still a significant agricultural and manufacturing core region

32 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. End Chapter 8

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