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9: An Agrarian Republic, 1790—1824

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1 9: An Agrarian Republic, 1790—1824

2 Diderot, writing of Voltaire
"Other historians relate facts to inform us of facts.  You relate them to excite in our hearts an intense hatred of lying, ignorance, hypocrisy, superstition, tyranny; and the anger remains even after the memory of the facts has disappeared."  Diderot, writing of Voltaire

3  “Men, by their constitutions, are naturally divided into two parties: (1) Those who fear and distrust the people, and wish to draw all powers from them into the hands of the higher classes; (2) Those who identify themselves with the people, have confidence in them, cherish and consider them as the most honest and safe, although not the most wise, depository of the public interests The appellation of Aristocrats and Democrats is the true one, expressing the essence of all.” Thomas Jefferson

4 “What to the American slave is your Fourth of July
“What to the American slave is your Fourth of July? I answer, a day that reveals to him more than all other days of the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim. To him your celebration is a sham; your boasted liberty an unholy license; your national greatness, swelling vanity; your sounds of rejoicing are empty and heartless; your denunciation of tyrants, brass-fronted impudence; your shouts of liberty and equality, hollow mockery; your prayers and hymns, your sermons and thanksgivings, with all your religious parade and solemnity, are to him mere bombast, fraud, deception, impiety, and hypocrisy -- a thin veil to cover up crimes which would disgrace a nation of savages. There is not a nation of the earth guilty of practices more shocking and bloody than are the people of these United States at this very hour Go where you may, search where you will, roam through all the monarchies and despotisms of the Old World, travel through South America, search out every abuse and when you have found the last, lay your facts by the side of the everyday practices of this nation, and you will say with me that, for revolting barbarity and shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival.” Frederick Douglass, July 4, 1852

5 How Democratic Is America?
By: Howard Zinn I propose a set of criteria for the description "democratic" which goes beyond formal political institutions, to the quality of life in the society (economic, social, psychological), beyond majority rule to a concern for minorities, and beyond national boundaries to a global view of what is meant by "the people," in that rough, but essential correct view of democracy as "government of, by, and for the people." Let me list these criteria quickly, because I will go on to discuss them in some detail later: 1. To what extent can various people in the society participate in those decisions which affect their lives: decisions in the political process and decisions in the economic structure? 2. As a corollary of the above: do people have equal access to the information which they need to make important decisions? 3. Are the members of the society equally protected on matters of life and death - in the most literal sense of that phrase?

6 4. Is there equality before the law: police, courts, the judicial process - as well as equality with the law enforcing institutions, so as to safeguard equally everyone's person, and his freedom from interference by others, and by the government? 5. Is there equality in the distribution of available resources: those economic goods necessary for health, life, recreation, leisure, growth? 6. Is there equal access to education, to knowledge and training, so as to enable persons in the society to live their lives as fully as possible, to enlarge their range of possibilities? 7. Is there freedom of expression on all matters, and equally for all to communicate with other members of the society? 8. Is there freedom for individuality in private life, in sexual relations, family relations, the right of privacy? 9. Do education and the culture in general foster a spirit of cooperation and amity to sustain the above conditions? 10. As a final safety feature: is there opportunity to protest, to disobey the laws, when the foregoing objectives are being lost - as a way of restoring them?

7 Chapter Review Questions
The US faced economic and political problems as a new nation in a world dominated by war between Britain and France. How successful were the efforts by the Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe administrations to solve these problems? The anti-European cast of Jefferson's republican agrarianism made it appealing to many Americans who wished to believe in their nation's uniqueness, but how realistic was it in the real world of politics during Jefferson's administration? Some Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase, warning of the dangers of westward expansion. What are arguments for and against expansion? The confrontations between Tecumseh's alliance and soldiers and settlers in the Old Northwest reveal the contradictions in American Indian policy. What were these contradictions? Can you suggest solutions to them? What did the War of 1812 accomplish?

8 Chronology 1790s   Second Great Awakening begins 1800   Thomas Jefferson elected president, Gabriel’s conspiracy American ships carry 95% of US-British trade 1801 Cane Ridge [Kentucky] revival 1802   Russian-American company headquarters at Sitka, Alaska 1803   Louisiana Purchase / Marbury v. Madison / Ohio admitted to the Union 1804   Lewis and Clark expedition begins / Thomas Jefferson reelected president / Russians reestablish Sitka following the Tlingit Revolt 1807   Chesapeake-Leopard incident / Embargo Act 1808   James Madison elected president / Int. slave trade illegal 1809   Tecumseh forms military alliance among northwest confederacy peoples 1811   Battle of Tippecanoe 1812   War of 1812 begins / James Madison reelected president / Louisiana admitted to the Union 1814   Hartford Convention / Treaty of Ghent

9 Chronology 1815   Battle of New Orleans 1816   James Monroe elected president / Congress charters Second Bank of the United States / Indiana admitted to the Union / American Colonization Society founded / African Methodist Episcopal Church founded 1817   Mississippi admitted to the Union 1818   Illinois admitted to the Union / Andrew Jackson invades FLA 1819   Panic of 1819 / Adams-Onis Treaty Missouri Crisis and Compromise 1820   James Monroe reelected president / Maine admitted to Union 1821   Missouri admitted to Union as slave state 1823 Monroe Doctrine

10 Annotated Bibliography
Gary B. Nash, Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia’s Black Community, (1988). This study of the struggles of Philadelphia’s African-American population (both enslaved and free) to build a community in the early republic includes discussions of work, religion, class, and the responses of the African-American community to growing white hostility. Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based of her Diary, (1990). A 20-year-long diary provided the primary source for this careful examination of the work, family events, and daily social interactions of a midwife in rural Maine in the early Republic.

11 Recommended Henry Adams, The United States in 1800
Walter LaFeber, John Quincy Adams and the American Continental Empire (1965) Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico: the Spanish-Speaking People of the US (1948) David Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (1993) Biography VHS: Lewis and Clark Expedition

12 A: Mandan Communities Lewis and Clark visited the Mandan villages in what is now North Dakota. The Mandan lived by agriculture and hunting and lived in matrilineal clans. The male chiefs met with Lewis and Clark who offered them a military and economic alliance. Americans established Fort Clark as a trading base. Americans brought diseases like smallpox that wiped out the vast majority of Mandans. Refer to photo of Bull Dance, p. 234.

13 B: North American Communities from Coast to Coast



16 The Spanish in North America
To protect their interests against Russian and British expansion, the Spanish had established a chain of missions throughout California. The Spanish also controlled New Orleans, though in 1800 it was: a polyglot, French-dominated society that was half black; and an international port. Americans were concerned that whomever controlled New Orleans could choke off commerce along the Mississippi River. East and West Florida dominated the Gulf of Mexico, and Spain opened the area to American immigration.

17 The Caribbean The Caribbean posed strong challenges because of the sugar industry. The Caribbean slave societies were jolted by the successful slave revolt in Haiti.

18 British North America The heart of British North America was the former French colony of Quebec. Loyalists comprised most of the other settlers. The American Revolution caused Great Britain to create a national legislature under strict executive control.

19 Russian America Sitka Russian settlements in Alaska were an extension of its conquest of Siberia. The Russia established Sitka in 1804. Russia established new settlements in California, including Fort Ross. Refer to photo of Sitka, p. 241.

20 America in 1800 In 1800, the United States was surrounded by European colonies.


22 Trans-Appalachia The trans-Appalachia west was the most rapidly growing region of the United States. By 1800, 500,000 Americans lived in Trans-Appalachia. Cincinnati served as major trading center for the Ohio River Valley. River traffic to and from New Orleans increased annually, though Westerners were concerned over who controlled the city.

23 Atlantic Ports Only 3 percent of Americans lived in cities
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Boston, and New York dominated trade. Each city had its own distinct economy and culture. These cities led the nation socially, politically, and economically. Those with the greatest ties to the trans-Appalachian West thrived.

24 C: A National Economy


26 The Economy of the Young Republic
Most Americans lived in rural, agricultural communities. Northerners were generally self-sufficient. The plantation regions of the South were heavily involved in marketing crops overseas, but demand for tobacco and rice only rose to pre-Revolutionary levels.

27 Shipping and The Economic Boom
In 1790, American shipping had been hurt by the end of ties with Great Britain. The outbreak of war in Europe and American neutrality vast expanded trade, fueling the growth of American coastal cities. The economic boom included: American entry into the Northwest fur and China markets; an active shipbuilding industry; and trade stimulated the rise of insurance companies, banks, and brokers catering to the international market. By 1820, the United States was building a strong, diversified national economy. Refer to photo of The American Clipper, p. 245.

28 D: The Jefferson Presidency

29 1800 Federalist “hiding place”
“. . . if all Bibles are to be destroyed, what is the use of bringing yours to me?” “It will be perfectly safe with you. They’ll never think of looking in the house of a Democrat for a Bible.”

30 Republican Agrarianism
Thomas Jefferson emerged as a strong president with strong party backing. Jefferson's ideal was an agrarian republic of roughly equal yeoman farmers. America’s abundant land allowed Jefferson to envision a nation of small family farms. Refer to photo of Thomas Jefferson, p. 246.

31 The Government & the Judiciary
Jefferson's promise to reduce the size of the federal government was fulfilled by: cutting internal taxes; and reducing the size of army, navy, and government staff. The unfinished state of the nation’s capital reflected the emphasis on local communities. While removing Federalist officeholders, Jefferson provoked a landmark Supreme Court decision. Marbury v. Madison did not restore William Marbury to his post, but it established the principle of judicial review and an independent judiciary.


33 The Louisiana Purchase
The conflict between France and Britain threatened American security. Napoleon's acquisition of the Louisiana Territory threatened American access to the Mississippi River. Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans, but accepted the French offer to buy the entire territory. The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States, fulfilling Jefferson's desire for continued expansion.

34 Incorporating Louisiana
The French customs of Louisiana conflicted with the English-derived American traditions were derived from England. The solution was to maintain aspects of French institutions in Louisiana.

35 Texas & the Struggle for Mexican Independence
Acquisition of Louisiana put the United States in conflict with Spain. Spain's involvement in the Napoleonic Wars caused its American empire to slip away. Several populist revolts fueled a strong independence movement in Mexico. [Alamo of 1830s in future chapter.]

36 D: Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America

37 Protecting Neutral Rights
In his second term, Jefferson faced problems protecting American neutrality. British ships seized American vessels trading in the French West Indies and impressed sailors into the Royal Navy. Congress first imposed a boycott and then passed the Embargo Act on foreign commerce that: did not change British policy; caused a deep depression; and led to widespread smuggling. During the presidency of James Madison, the Embargo Act was repealed, Other similar acts passed later also proved ineffective.

38 A Contradictory Indian Policy
Indian affairs remained among the most difficult foreign problems. Western tribes resisted American incursion into their territory. Jefferson hoped that Indians would either be converted to white civilization or moved across the Mississippi River. Neither policy won much Indian support.


40 Tecumseh, Tenskatawa, & Indian Resistance
The Shawnee emerged as the leading force of Indian resistance in the Ohio Valley. Tecumseh led a band that attempted to escape contact with whites. His brother, Tenskwatawa, The Prophet, called for a rejection of white ways and built a pan-Indian religious movement. Tecumseh formed a pan-Indian confederacy was initially defensive but soon advocated military resistance. While Tecumseh was in the South, a American army defeated Tenskwatawa’s followers at Tippecanoe. In response, Tecumseh formally allied with the British. Refer to photo of Tecumseh and Tenskatawa, p. 253.

41 E: The War of 1812


43 The War Hawks Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun were leaders of a new generation of War Hawks from the South and West that supported war as a means of expansion. Madison’s declaration of war received no Federalist support.

44 The Campaign Against Canada
American efforts to capture Canada failed due to New England opposition; the strength of the British-Indian forces; and the resistance of Canadians. The Americans won the Battle of the Thames, at which Tecumseh was killed. Refer to photo of Perry on Lake Erie, p, 258.

45 War & the Hartford Convention
Continued opposition from New England led to the Hartford Convention. Federalists demanded redress of grievances though they dropped talk of secession. Andrew Jackson and Indian allies defeated the Creek Indians and invaded Florida. The British navy established a strong blockade and burned Washington.

46 Peace and Pride The Treaty of Ghent ended the war without addressing the major grievances, but the British did agree to evacuate the western forts. Andrew Jackson’s victory at New Orleans saved American pride. The war also ended lingering feelings of American colonial dependency. The Indians were the only clear losers.

47 F: Defining the Boundaries



50 Another Westward Surge
Peace brought widespread Indian removal that opened lands and enabled Americans to resume their westward migration.

51 Migration Routes Northern migrants traveled the Genesee Turnpike.
Middle States settlers went west on the Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Turnpike and the National Road. The Wilderness and Federal Roads were southern migration routes.


53 Western Settlement Overpopulated farmland in the east pushed Americans to cheap land in the west. Easterners brought the culture and values of their home regions with them. The Old Northwest shared New England values. The Old Southwest was based on plantation slavery. Refer to photo of Girdling trees, p. 260.

54 The Second Great Awakening
Revolving around the camp meeting, the Second Great Awakening: further strengthened east-west relations; and helped Westerners create new institutions. Refer to photo of Camp Meeting, p. 263.

55 The Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe presided over the post-war “era of good feelings.” Monroe brought former Federalists into his cabinet. Embracing most of Henry Clay’s American System that updated many of Hamilton’s ideas, the Monroe administration: established the Second Bank of the United States: passed a protective tariff; but would not subsidized roads and canals--the third part of the American System.


57 The Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State John Quincy Adams laid the foundation for continued expansion. Two treaties with Britain established a demilitarized Canadian border and provided for the joint occupation of Oregon. The Adams-Onis Treaty turned over Florida to the United States and relinquished claims to Louisiana. Adams defined the response of the United States to emerging nations in the western hemisphere by designing the Monroe Doctrine.

58 The Panic of 1819 New problems emerged as Americans moved westward.
A land boom was financed by speculative buying and easy credit. The Panic of 1819 was triggered by the Second Bank of the United States foreclosing on loans that led to six years of depression. The Panic of 1819 hurt urban workers suffering from the decline in trade and manufacturing failures. Manufacturers pressed for higher protective tariffs, angering Southerners.


60 The Missouri Compromise
Effort to admit Missouri into the Union as a slave state created a crisis. Northerners opposed the creation of new slave states because it would tip the balance between slave and free states. Southerners sought to expand slavery and were concerned that Congress would even consider the matter. Henry Clay forged a compromise that maintained the balance between free and slave states. Maine was admitted as a free slave state and slavery was barred north of Missouri’s southern boundary.

61 “Thomas Jefferson on Politics and Government”
Containing over 2,700 quotes from Thomas Jefferson, this site contains, in his own words, Jefferson’s thoughts on the theory and structure of Republican government, citizens’ rights, and judicial review. Also, this site offers numerous links to other resources that contain additional writing of Jefferson.

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