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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Presentation on theme: "Sexually Transmitted Diseases"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Project Red Talon Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board Stephanie Craig Rushing, MPH

2 STDs: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
There are over 30 kinds of sexually transmitted diseases!!

3 STDs: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
How many can you name?

4 STDs: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
We will focus on the major ones that impact our communities: Chlamydia - Gonorrhea Crabs - Syphilis Genital Herpes - PID Genital Warts - HIV/AIDS

5 Bacteria or Virus? Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis
PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) Genital Herpes Genital Warts HIV/AIDS

6 Bacteria Virus Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis
PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) Genital Herpes Genital Warts HIV/AIDS

7 Bacteria / Virus What is the difference between a bacterial infection and a viral infection? Chlamydia trachomatis

8 Bacteria / Virus No Cure: Just Treatment Cure: Antibiotics
Chlamydia trachomatis

9 How STDs Spread… Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are caused by viruses or bacteria that enter the body through tiny cuts or tears.

10 You can get infected without having sex…
STDs can be passed by: skin-to-skin contact through sexual fluids ingesting fecal material

11 You can get infected without having sex…
skin-to-skin contact (oral, vaginal, or anal sex) through sexual fluids (blood, semen, infected discharge, vaginal fluids) ingesting fecal material (even microscopic amounts!)

12 Fact: 1 out of 4 teens having sex has an STD

13 Most people don’t know they’re infected
Many STDs do not produce noticeable signs or symptoms, and mild signs often go unrecognized.

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15 Chlamydia

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17 Chlamydia No symptoms 80% of the time!
Symptoms for Women: bleeding after sex, lower abdominal pain, discharge from vagina Symptoms for Men: painful urination, discharge from penis, lower abdominal pain Bacterial infection (can be cured!!!)

18 Chlamydia is most common among year olds, and is more common among Native youth than among other populations.

19 Fact: 1 in 10 sexually active teens has chlamydia.

20 This woman’s cervix has manifested signs of a erosion and erythema due to chlamydial infection. (1985)

21 Copyright © 2001-2004 Campaign for Our Children

22 Gonorrhea

23 Gonorrhea Bacterial infection (can be cured!!!)
Symptoms for Women: irritation of the cervix, pee often, can cause PID and infertility Symptoms for Men: painful urination, inflammation, discharge from penis only 50% of the time

24 Fact: Chlamydia and gonorrhea rates are highest among
15 to 24 year olds.

25 This patient presented with a case of gonorrhea with symptoms including cervicitis and vaginal discharge.

26 This patient presented with a case of gonorrhea with symptoms including penile discharge.

27 This patient presented with a lesion of the right hand due to a disseminated Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteremia. (1979) Though a sexually transmitted disease, if a Gonorrhea infection is allowed to go untreated, the Neisseria gonorrhea bacteria responsible for the infection can become disseminated throughout the body, forming lesions in extra-genital locations.

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29 Syphilis

30 Syphilis Bacterial infection (can be cured) 3 distinct phases:
Primary (sores develop then go away) Secondary (4 – 10 weeks after chancres go away) Latent (dormant phase, no signs… all but gone, causes irreversible brain, nerve, and tissue damage)

31 AI/AN U.S.

32 These images show chancres on the penile shaft due to a primary syphilitic infection caused by Treponema pallidum bacteria. The primary stage of syphilis is usually marked by the appearance of a single sore called a chancre. The chancre is usually firm, round, small, and painless. It appears at the spot where T. pallidum bacteria entered the body, and lasts 3-6 weeks, healing on its own.

33 This syphilis patient presented with symptoms indicative of the secondary stage of the disease, which included multiple lesions located on the penis and scrotum.                                                                                                                             Secondary syphilis is the most contagious of all the stages, and is characterized by a systemic spread of the Treponema pallidum bacterium. The secondary maculopapular rash usually causes no itching, and can appear as the chancre, or chancres found during the primary stage of syphilis are healing, or several weeks after the chancres have healed.

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35 HIV/AIDS

36 Copyright © 2001-2004 Campaign for Our Children

37 HIV/AIDS No cure! Can be treated HIV: Human Immunodeficiency virus
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

38 Fact: Two U.S. teens are infected with HIV every hour of every day.

39 Race/ethnicity of persons living with AIDS, 2003

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41 Other STDs…

42 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Also called PID Bacterial infection (can be cured) Can be caused by untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea Infects reproductive organs 1 million women have it!!!

43 Pubic Lice “Crabs” Caused by a parasite
Not the same thing as head or body lice Women and men: itching and burning

44 Copyright © 2001-2004 Campaign for Our Children

45 This is an illustration comparing the Head Louse, Pediculus humanus, with the Pubic Louse, Phthirus pubis.

46 Genital Herpes Can’t be cured…Can be treated!
Causes blisters/ulcers on or around genitals Very contagious As many as 80 to 90% of those infected fail to recognize symptoms! 50 million Americans have it!

47 This patient presented with what was diagnosed as a herpes genitalis outbreak on the penile shaft due to HSV-2. (1978)

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49 HPV: Genital Warts No cure! New Vaccine. It can be treated
Caused by the HPV (human papilloma virus) Can cause cervical cancer in women Most common STD transmitted by a virus!!!

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52 Hepatitis A Inflammation of the liver Hepatitis A heals completely
Can’t get it again, lifelong immunity Oral-fecal transmission Vaccine preventable

53 Hepatitis B Inflammation of the liver
Transmission: blood, semen, vaginal secretions, saliva Acute and chronic carriers Over 1 millions Americans have chronic Hepatitis B Vaccine preventable

54 Hepatitis C Inflammation of the liver
Transmitted mainly through blood (IV drug use especially) Like Hepatitis A and B, there is no cure for Hepatitis C Can cause liver failure and cancer. No vaccine available.

55 Know the Facts. Know for Sure.
If left untreated, STDs can cause infertility, long-term pain, or cancer.

56 Prevention

57 Preventing STDs… As with many other diseases, prevention is key. It's much easier to prevent STDs than to treat them. The only way to completely prevent STDs is to abstain from all types of sexual contact.

58 Preventing STDs… If you decide to have sex, it means you must also take responsibility to protect yourself and your partner from unplanned pregnancy and STDs. Latex condoms are the only form of birth control that lessen your risk of contracting an STD.

59 Fact: 1 of every 5 sexually active teen females will get pregnant this year.

60 Copyright © 2001-2004 Campaign for Our Children

61

62 Preventing STDs… What Works: ABSTINENCE. Latex condoms.
Sticking to one partner, who has been tested and is uninfected. Good communication about sexual history & STDs. Avoiding alcohol and drugs.

63 Know the Facts. Know for Sure.
If you have had unprotected sex, you may have an STD and not know it.

64 Know the Facts. Know for Sure.
If your partner has had unprotected sex, your partner may have an STD and not know it.

65 Know the Facts. Know for Sure.
If you think you have an STD, there is something you can do about it… The only way to know for sure is to be tested. Visit your clinic or call the CDC National STD and AIDS Hotline for more information at (800) , 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

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67 In many States (including Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), teens age 14 years and above may consent to STD and HIV testing and treatment without parental consent… If you are concerned about this, call the clinic before you go. Ask if you need to bring your parent along for permission and what information the clinic will share with them. This way you know what to expect ahead of time.

68 Know your Score, Take the Quiz!
Have you talked to your partner about Sexual Health? Do you have sex with a condom or barrier on every occasion? Are you sure your current partner is free of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)? Do you know for sure if any of your past partners have had an STD? Has your partner shown you STD test results? If you answered “No” or “Not Sure” to any of these questions, visit your clinic to receive confidential testing.

69 Questions?


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