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The Northwest and the Artic Chapter 2 Lesson 5 Pages 82-87.

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1 The Northwest and the Artic Chapter 2 Lesson 5 Pages 82-87

2 I.A Region of Plenty A. People of the Northwest Coast - Kwakiutl (kwah-Kee-YOO-tuhl) - Makah (mah-KAW) - Chinook (Shuh-NUK) B. Fishing/Hunting/Gathering plants/Nuts - SALMON was a staple C. Whales - Food, but also fat - Fat melted and used for oil - Kwakiutl – captures beached whales only - Makah – Hunted in large canoes that held 60 people

3 II.Resources and Trade A. Family Shelters - Makah – Like Iroquois, but larger (LONGHOUSE) - CLAN – Extended family - All members of the clan lived in the same longhouse B. Clans - made important village decisions - taught younger members songs, stories, & woodcarving C. Wood - EXTREMELY important – everything made from wood - TOTEM POLES – showed one or more characters to tell a story or welcome visitors

4 D. TRADE - Waterways were used to trade - ECONOMY – the way the people of a state, region, or country use their resources to meet their needs - Trading a big part of the regions economy E. The Dalles - Chinook – best known traders of the NW Coast Indians - Lived at the mouth of the Columbia River - Controlled all the way up to the Dalles (200 miles away) - DALLES – center of the trade network - Trading difficult though because all spoke diff. languages

5 - Chinook – profited due to creating a “trade language” - BARTER – exchange goods - Chinook used the trade language to help barter between two groups who spoke different languages - Trading a big part of the regions economy F. A Potlatch “to give” - Used to show wealth and divide property among the people - Kwakiutl (lived along the coast of now Canada) believed to have developed the Potlatch - Dancing, Food, Speeches

6 III.Lands of the North A. Aleut (a-lee-OOT) - lived along the coast of the Aleutian Islands B. Inuit (IH-nu-wuht) - Closely related to the Aleut - lived in what is now Alaska and Northernmost Canada C. Life in the Artic - Few plants - Hunted fox, caribou, polar bears - Used harpoons & kayaks to hung seals, walruses, whales - KAYAK – one person canoe made of waterproof skins stretched over wood or bone

7 D. Resources - everything used - Seals = meat, skins (clothes & tents), oil (heat & light), bones (tools) E. Aleut & Inuit homes - Aleut lived together in large houses with beams of whalebone & walls of sod - Inuit - lived in IGLOOS, homes of ice, in winter - some Inuit lived in tents made of animal skin or in sod houses year round

8 F. Family - extended family important to the Inuit & Aleut - bands of 60 – 300 people - traveled and hunted together for survival - bands would come together to make important decisions G. Life in the Sub-Artic - South of the Artic – stretches from eastern Canada to what is now Alaska - CREE – believed in hunting and gathering to meet needs - Cree lived in a wide area covering Canada - Trees provided wood to help meet needs - Could not grow crops due to extreme weather

9 SUMMARY  Peoples of the Northwest Coast took advantage of the region’s rich natural resources  Peoples of the Arctic and sub-Arctic thrived in a region of fewer resources

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11 To adjust ways of living to land and resources  A. Migration  B. Division of labor  C. Adapt

12 To adjust ways of living to land and resources  C. Adapt

13 A group of people with ways of life, religion, and learning  A. Tradition  B. Civilization  C. Ceremony

14 A group of people with ways of life, religion, and learning  B. Civilization

15 A way of life or an idea that has been handed down from the past  A. Artifact  B. Tradition  C. Adapt

16 A way of life or an idea that has been handed down from the past  B. Tradition

17 A way to divide work  A. Division of labor  B. Ceremony  C. Economy

18 A way to divide work  A. Division of labor

19 The movement of people  A. Civilization  B. Adapt  C. Migration

20 The movement of people  C. Migration

21 The way people use their resources to meet their needs  A. Tradition  B. Adapt  C. Economy

22 The way people use their resources to meet their needs  C. Economy

23 A celebration to honor a special event  A. Tradition  B. Ceremony  C. Artifact

24 A celebration to honor a special event  B. Ceremony

25 An object made by people  A. Artifact  B. Economy  C. Tradition

26 An object made by people  A. Artifact

27 How did life change for people once they began farming?  They began to settle down. Were no longer nomadic people.

28 What achievement of Mayan culture was unique among early Americans?  They developed a counting system that included the number zero

29 Which two language groups lived in the Eastern Woodlands region?  A. Iroquoian & Algonquian  B. Shoshone & Nez Perce  C. Inuit & Aluet  D. Hopi & Navajo

30 Which two language groups lived in the Eastern Woodlands region?  A. Iroquoian & Algonquian

31 For which two Native American regions was wood one of the most important resources?  A. Southwest & Plains  B. Plains & Eastern Woodlands  C. Eastern Woodlands & Northwest  D. Southwest & Artic

32 For which two Native American regions was wood one of the most important resources?  C. Eastern Woodlands & Northwest

33 What is one example of a way that Native Americans modified their environment?  A. They traded for things they needed.  B. They irrigated land for farming.  C. They stored food in containers.  D. They traveled long distances for wood.

34 What is one example of a way that Native Americans modified their environment?  B. They irrigated land for farming.

35 According to the land bridge theory, form which continent did early people cross into North America?  A. Africa  B. Asia  C. Europe  D. South America

36 According to the land bridge theory, form which continent did early people cross into North America?  B. Asia

37 What is the main reason that early peoples in the Americas began to live in larger, more settled villages?  A. They developed agriculture.  B. They found dependable water sources.  C. They learned how to hunt with bows & arrows.  D. They needed protection from warring peoples.

38 What is the main reason that early peoples in the Americas began to live in larger, more settled villages?  A. They developed agriculture.

39 What was the major purpose of the Iroquois League?  A. To trade goods  B. To lead religious ceremonies  C. To resolve conflicts among people & groups  D. To establish a common language for communication

40 What was the major purpose of the Iroquois League?  C. To resolve conflicts among people & groups

41 After water, what was the most important resource for the Plains Indians?  A. Buffalo  B. Fish  C. Rivers  D. Trees

42 After water, what was the most important resource for the Plains Indians?  A. Buffalo

43 Why did the economy of Native Americans living in the Arctic cause families to band together?  A. They were able to grow plenty of food in the summer  B. They had to travel long distances to hunt seal  C. When food was scarce, the families shared seal meat  D. They held potlatch celebrations to share their many resources

44 Why did the economy of Native Americans living in the Arctic cause families to band together? C. When food was scarce, the families shared seal meat


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